Food Security in India Notes – Food Security is the ability to ensure, in the long term, that the entire population has access to a timely, reliable, and nutritionally adequate supply of food. The CBSE Food Security in India Notes, discusses topics related to the importance of food security and initiatives taken by the government to address food insecurity. These CBSE Food Security in India Notes provide an overview of how India deals with food insecurity and can help students prepare for exams.
Food Security in India Notes
Food security in India refers to the availability, accessibility, and affordability of food for the entire population. It is a major concern in India, as a large portion of the population is still unable to access a sufficient and nutritious supply of food. he government of India has taken various initiatives to improve food security in the country, such as the National Food Security Act (2013) and the Mid-Day Meal Scheme (1995). However, challenges still remain, including inadequate storage and distribution infrastructure, low agricultural productivity, and food price fluctuations. Ensuring food security for all is essential for the overall development and well-being of the population.
What is food security?
Food security has the following dimensions –
- Availability: Sufficient quantities of food at all times to meet the dietary needs of individuals in a population. This includes both domestic food production and the ability to import or access food from other sources. It is important to ensure that there is a constant supply of food in order to meet the needs of the population and prevent food shortages or famines.
- Accessibility: Accessibility refers to the ease with which people can obtain the food they need. There are many factors that can affect food accessibility, including income, location, and transportation. Ensuring that all people have access to adequate, nutritious food is an important goal for many governments and organizations around the world.
- Affordability: Affordability refers to the cost of food relative to a person’s income. When food is unaffordable, it can be difficult for people to access the food they need to live a healthy, active life. There are many factors that can affect the affordability of food, including the cost of production, distribution, and retail, as well as economic and political factors.
Food security is ensured in a country
When all people have access to adequate, nutritious food that is affordable and produced in a sustainable manner. In order to achieve food security, a country must be able to produce or access enough food to meet the needs of its population, and there must be systems in place to ensure that food is distributed and made available to all people.
Why food security?
During natural disasters such as drought, production of food grains can decrease, leading to a shortage of food and an increase in prices. This can make it difficult for people to afford food, especially if the disaster affects a large area or lasts for an extended period of time. If the shortage of food becomes severe, it can lead to a situation of starvation. If the starvation is widespread, it can turn into a famine, which is characterized by widespread deaths due to starvation, as well as epidemics caused by the use of contaminated water or decaying food. Famine can also weaken the body’s resistance due to malnutrition. In summary:
- Natural disasters such as drought can lead to a decrease in food production and a shortage of food.
- The shortage of food can cause an increase in prices, making it difficult for people to afford food.
- If the shortage of food becomes severe, it can lead to a situation of starvation.
- If the starvation is widespread, it can turn into a famine, characterized by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by contaminated water or decaying food.
- Famine can also weaken the body’s resistance due to malnutrition.
Who are food-insecure?
Food insecurity refers to a lack of access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. People who are food-insecure may not have enough food to meet their basic needs, or they may not have access to a variety of foods that are necessary for a healthy diet. Food insecurity can affect people of all ages, but it is often more prevalent among certain groups, including:
- Children: Children are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity, as they require proper nutrition for their physical and cognitive development.
- Low-income households: Households with low incomes may struggle to afford enough food, especially if they have high housing or medical costs.
- Rural communities: Rural communities may face barriers to accessing food, such as a lack of transportation or availability of supermarkets.
- Indigenous communities: Indigenous communities may experience food insecurity due to a lack of access to traditional foods or cultural barriers to accessing mainstream food sources.
- Older adults: Older adults may be at risk of food insecurity due to social isolation, physical limitations, or limited access to transportation.
Food Security in India
The Green Revolution in India has helped the country avoid famine and become self-sufficient in food grains. The government of India has implemented a food security system to ensure the availability of food grains, which includes a buffer stock and a public distribution system. The buffer stock is a reserve of food grains that can be used in times of need, and the public distribution system is a system for distributing subsidized food to the population.
What is Buffer stock?
Buffer stock refers to a reserve of a particular good or commodity that is maintained in order to stabilize prices, smooth out production and consumption, or mitigate the effects of supply disruptions. In the context of India, the Public Distribution System (PDS) operates a buffer stock of food grains, such as wheat and rice, through the Food Corporation of India (FCI).
The FCI procures the food grains from farmers at a pre-announced price (called the Minimum Support Price or MSP) and maintains the buffer stock in warehouses. The buffer stock is then distributed to deficit areas and to poorer sections of society at a discounted price (called the Issue Price) through a network of fair price shops. The PDS is funded by the government budget and is managed by a designated agency or department.
What is the Public Distribution System?
The Public Distribution System (PDS) is a government-run program in India that provides essential household goods, such as food grains, fuel, and other necessities, to the population at subsidized prices. The PDS operates through a network of fair price shops, also known as ration shops, which are authorized to sell the subsidized goods to the eligible households.
The Food Corporation of India (FCI) procures the food grains from farmers at a pre-announced price (called the Minimum Support Price or MSP) and maintains the buffer stock in warehouses. The buffer stock is then distributed to deficit areas and to poorer sections of society at a discounted price (called the Issue Price) through the fair price shops. The PDS is funded by the government budget and is managed by a designated agency or department.
Current Status of Public the Distribution System
The PDS continues to face challenges, such as inadequate infrastructure and storage facilities, issues with the supply chain, and high levels of food waste. There have also been reports of corruption and mismanagement in the distribution of subsidised goods. The government is working to address these challenges and improve the effectiveness of the PDS in ensuring food security for the population.
There have also been efforts to digitize the PDS and use technology to improve transparency, efficiency, and accountability in the distribution of subsidised goods. For example, the use of electronic Point of Sale (ePoS) devices and the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme have been introduced to streamline the distribution of subsidised goods and reduce leakages in the system.
Role of cooperatives in food security
Cooperatives can play a significant role in improving food security in India by providing a range of services and support to farmers, particularly small and marginal farmers. These services may include access to credit, marketing and distribution support, extension services, and access to modern technologies and inputs.
Cooperatives can also help to stabilize prices and improve the bargaining power of farmers by aggregating their produce and negotiating better prices with buyers. In addition, cooperatives can facilitate the storage, processing, and distribution of agricultural produce, which can help to reduce post-harvest losses and improve the availability of food.
There are various types of cooperatives in India that are involved in the agriculture sector, such as producer cooperatives, marketing cooperatives, and processing cooperatives. These cooperatives are regulated by the Cooperative Societies Act and are supported by the government through various initiatives and schemes.
Cooperatives can also play a role in the Public Distribution System (PDS) by acting as fair price shops or ration shops, which are authorized to distribute subsidised goods to the eligible households. This can help to improve the reach and coverage of the PDS, especially in rural and remote areas.
Social Science Class 9 Notes
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Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes
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Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
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Chapter 4: Food Security in India Class 9 Notes
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