Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer. Al the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Social Science.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

1. Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
a. Shifting cultivators
b. Nomadic and pastoralist communities
c. Firms trading in timber/forest produce
d. Plantation owners
e. Kings/British officials engaged in shikar (hunting)
Answer –
a. Shifting cultivators – In European colonists Shifting agriculture was considered dangerous to the future survival of forests. There was always a possibility that fires would get out of hand and destroy all the valuable timber. keeping these factors in mind, the colonial government banned shifting cultivation. In the process, many of these cultivators lost their sources of support, and the majority were also forced to leave their homes in the forest.

b. Nomadic and pastoralist communities – The new forest laws had a significant negative impact on their daily lives. Nomadic and pastoralist populations were unable to cut wood, graze cattle, pick fruits and roots, hunt or fish as a result of the changes brought about by forest management. Everything was made unlawful. Because of this, they had almost no choice but to steal wood, and if they were caught, they would have to pay the forest guards bribes. British were designated as “criminal tribes.”

c. Firms trading in timber/forest produce – Trade was completely regulated by the government. The British government granted European businesses the exclusive right to trade in certain regions’ forest products. Firms that traded in timber and forest products saw significant profits from this approach.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

d. Plantation owners – To meet the demand for tea, coffee, and rubber in Europe, vast areas of natural forests were cut down to make place for plantations. Land was provided at a low cost to plantation owners, who were mainly of European descent. These commodities were in high demand in Europe. Others were not permitted within the fenced-off plantations.

e. Kings/British officials engaged in shikar (hunting) – Deer, partridges, and small animal hunting were prohibited by forest laws. This restriction took away the means of survival and food from those who lived close to forests. In contrast to this ban, kings and the British began to enjoy hunting large creatures like tigers, leopards, and wolves. The British believed that they could civilise India by killing wild animals. Certain animal species nearly went extinct as a result of the British and the Kings’ uncontrolled killing.

2. What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and in Java?
Answer – There are several similarities between the colonial management of the forests in Java and Bastar.
a. The Dutch started colonial forest management in Java and British had done in India, for timber.
b. The blandongdiensten system in Java required free labour from forest people for cutting and carrying wood and villagers in Bastar were permitted to remain in protected forests in exchange for working for free for timber companies.
c. The British put down the Bastar inhabitants’ revolt in 1910, just as they did the Kalangs uprising in Java in 1770.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

3. Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
a. Railways
b. Shipbuilding
c. Agricultural expansion
d. Commercial farming
e. Tea/Coffee plantations
f. Adivasis and other peasant users
Answer –
a. Railways – Railways were a valuable asset and essential for transport. Railway are used to move troops and trade. Wood are required for making a railway track and fuel to power the engines. The 1760 to 2000 of sleepers needed to cover one kilometre of railroad track. In order to furnish the materials for the trains, substantial portions of forest were cut down.

b. Shipbuilding – Ships in the early 19th century were made of wood before the industrial revolution. When England’s oak forests started to decline. The Royal Navy faced a logistical challenge as a result since maintaining and building new ships required a constant supply of timber. The British started attacking India’s forest resources. India’s forests were depleted as a result of large-scale timber exports to England for shipbuilding.

c. Agricultural expansion – The need for food increased along with the population. In order to make space for additional agricultural tracts, forests were removed. The colonial officials thought clearing the trees would increase food production. Additionally, woods were already considered as being unproductive, so they had little difficulty to clearcut them in large quantities. Between 1880 and 1920, agricultural land increased by 6.7 million hectares. It is safe to say that agricultural expansions were the primary cause of deforestation.

d. Commercial farming – Commercial crops including jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton saw an upsurge in demand throughout the Colonial era. In order to feed its expanding population and provide its expanding industrial production, Europe required more food grain. Therefore, trees were cut down to make way for industrial farming.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

e. Tea/Coffee plantations – The Colonial administration sold large tracts of forest to European Planters for a very low price. Due to the high demand for tea and coffee in Europe, natural forests were removed for their cultivation. The Adivasis and other rural customers In the 1600s, only a sixth of India’s area was under agriculture. Considering how quickly the population has grown, more than half of the continent is now under agriculture. Peasants expanded their areas under agriculture as food need increased by clearing forests and cultivating fresh land.

f. Adivasis and other peasant users – The Adivasis and other rural people use the area to graze their animals and collect forest goods. Their primary source of income was from forest products. The only time this destroys trees is occasionally when agriculture is moved around. In reality, current trends favour involving neighbourhood inhabitants in forest protection and preservation. Adivasis and other peasant communities consider the forests to be their property, and some even hire watchmen to keep an eye on them.

Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Question Answer

4. Why are forests affected by wars?
Answer – For a number of reasons, wars have an impact on forests. India’s forests were brutally cleared for war purposes by Britain during the World Wars. The Dutch destroyed sawmills and teak logs in Java to keep Japan from profiting from the forestry sector. Because of the willful destruction and clearing of forests to meet military needs, forests suffer from fast depletion and poor regrowth.

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