ICT Skills Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the ICT Skills Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Employability Skills as per the board pattern.

ICT Skills Class 11 Notes

ict skills class 11 notes
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in
ict skills class 11 notes mm2
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in

Creating A Document In Word Processor


A word processor is a piece of computer software that facilitates typing and working with text. In a word processor, you may generate and save documents like letters, memos, and newsletters. The ability to always open and edit a document is the fundamental benefit of using a word processor to create one. Additionally, you may format it, check for spelling and grammar mistakes, add illustrations and pictures, set page borders, and print it.


To make text entry and editing on the computer simple, a number of word processors including Microsoft Word, Open Office Writer, and Star Office have been created. Google Docs, a feature of Google Drive, is a popular example of an online word processor.

Apache OpenOffice

Apache OpenOffice is a free and open-source software that has been developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Apache OpenOffice can be downloaded for free from:

The Apache OpenOffice package contains the following:
• OpenOffice Writer (Word processor)
• OpenOffice Calc (Spreadsheet)
• OpenOffice Impress (Presentation)
• OpenOffice Base (Database Management System)
• OpenOffice Draw (Graphics)
• OpenOffice Math (Equation Editor)


To start OpenOffice Writer, click Start ➢ All Programs ➢ OpenOffice 4.1.5 ➢ OpenOffice Writer.
The Apache OpenOffice Writer window, along with its sidebar and other components.

digital documentation

Components of a Calc Screen

  • Title bar
  • Menu bar
  • Standard tool bar
  • Formatting bar
  • Name box
  • Worksheet tab

Edit, Save and Print a Document in Word Processor

As we already know, using a word processor to create documents has several benefits. The ability to edit the document whenever we want is one of the primary benefits.

Selecting consecutive text

Selecting Text Using a Mouse
To select text using a mouse, follow the steps:
1. Place the cursor to the left of the first character of the text to be selected.
2. Press the left mouse button and drag the mouse to the position where you want to end selection.
3. Release the mouse button. The selected text gets highlighted in blue color.

Selecting Text Using Keyboard

You can select text using even the keys on your keyboard. First, place the cursor to the left of the first character you wish to select. Then use the following key combinations:

To select Key combinations
One character to the left Shift +←
One character to the right Shift + →
One line up Shift +↑
One line down Shift +↓
To the end of the current line Shift + End
To the beginning of the current line Shift + Home
To the end of the current document Shift + Ctrl + End
To the beginning of the document Shift + Ctrl + Home
Entire document Ctrl + A

Selecting non-consecutive text items

You can also select non-consecutive text in a word processor.
To select non-consecutive text in a document using mouse:
1. Select the first text.
2. Press and hold down the Ctrl key.
3. Select the next text.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for other text.

Inserting and Overtyping Text

You can insert (add) text into the existing text or overtype (replace old text with the new one) text in
OpenOffice Writer.

To insert text, press the Insert key, to turn ON the Insert mode, which is indicated by INSRT appearing
on the status bar

insert mode status bar

Sometimes, you may need to type and replace the current text. This can be done using the Overtype mode. To overtype text, press the Insert key or click on INSRT on the status bar to turn ON the Overtype mode, which is indicated by OVER appearing on the status bar.

overmode insert tab

Deleting Text

You can easily delete a character, a word, or a block of text in Open Office Writer. Let us learn how to delete a character, a block of text or a word.
To delete a character, the steps are:
1. Position the cursor to the left of the character to be deleted.
2. Press DELETE.
1. Position the cursor to the right of the character to be deleted.

To delete a block of text, the steps are:
1. Select the text to be deleted.

To delete a word, the steps are:
1. Place the cursor to the left of the word to be deleted.
2. Press Ctrl + Delete.
1. Place the cursor to the right of the word to be deleted.
2. Press Ctrl + Backspace.

Undo and Redo Commands

Undo – The Undo command is used to reverse the last command/action.

Redo – The Redo command is used to reverse the last Undo action.

Wrapping Text

Text wrapping is a feature that automatically starts a new line when a word in a sequence reaches the border of a picture, a text box, or the margin. There are different options to wrap text around the image.

The steps are:
1. Select the image.
2. Select Wrap option from the Format menu.
3. Select the desired option.

Setting Alignment

The way text is positioned within a page’s margins is known as alignment. Pages in a document can be made appealing and readable by using alignment. The document is more aesthetically pleasing and easier to read when it is properly aligned.

The steps to change the alignment of text are:
1. Select the text.
2. Select Paragraph option from the Format menu.
3. The Paragraph dialog box appears. (Fig 8).
4. Select the desired alignment option.
5. Click OK.


The ability to alter the size, colour, and style of the text is another benefit of word processing software. The process of formatting involves altering the way that text appears in a document by using different fonts, font colours, font sizes, etc.

Formatting Text

Text Formatting Using the Format Menu

1. Select the text.
2. Click the Format menu bar and then select Character option. The Character dialog box appears.

  • You can change the font, font size, and typeface using the Font tab in the dialog box.
  • Click on the Font Effects tab to change the font color, font effect, and apply other styles such as underlining.
  • You can change the position of the text (e.g., superscript, subscript, etc.) using the Position tab

4. Click OK after choosing the desired options.

Change Case

There are instances when you begin typing in uppercase, only to realise that you meant to type it in lowercase, or vice versa. Use the Alter Case option to change the case of the text instead of typing the entire sentence over. The actions are:

1. Select the Change Case option from the Format menu. 
2. Select the desired option in the submenu.
Sentence case – The first character in a sentence is capitalized and the rest are in lowercase.
lowercase – All characters are in lowercase (small letters)
UPPERCASE – All characters are in uppercase (capital letters)
Capitalize – Every Word The first character of each word is capital and the rest are in lowercase
tOGGLE cASE – Changes lowercase characters to uppercase and uppercase characters to lowercase


A document’s header is the text that appears at the top of each page (in the top margin). Each page has a footer that is printed at the bottom (in the bottom margin).
Additional information about the document, such as the date and page number, is provided in the headers and footers.

To insert headers and footers in a document

1. Select Insert ➢ Header or Footer ➢ Default.

The header area appears at the top of the document.  Type the header.
2. Select Page option from the Format menu.
a. The Page Style: Default dialog box appears.
b. Click the Header tab or the Footer tab.
c. A box will appear at the top and the bottom area of the page, respectively.
3. You can either type text or add date and time by selecting the Fields option in the Insert menu.
4. Click in the document area to finish adding header or footer information.

Removing Header or Footer

To remover header of footer, the steps are:
1. Select Insert ➢ Header or Footer ➢ Default.
2. A message box appears.
3. Click Yes to delete the header or footer.


One of the major benefits of writing a text on a word processor is that we can quickly identify any spelling or grammar errors we made while typing. These can be quickly fixed by using the word processor’s features. OpenOffice Writer documents have wavy lines beneath the text that are either red or blue. A wavy line denotes a grammatical error, and a red wavy line denotes a misspelt word.

OpenOffice Writer provides the following two ways of checking spelling and grammar in a document:
• Using AutoSpellcheck
• Using the Spelling and Grammar option

Using AutoSpellcheck

The steps to check spellings as you type are:
1. Click the AutoSpellcheck button on the Standard bar.
2. Right-click the misspelled word (with a red wavy underline) and then choose a word from the suggested list
from the AutoCorrect submenu. If you choose a word from the AutoCorrect submenu, the misspelled and the replacement words are automatically added to the AutoCorrect list for the current language.

Using the Spelling and Grammar Option

The Spelling & Grammar option of OpenOffice Writer helps you check the spelling and grammatical errors in your document. The steps are:
1. Select the Spelling and Grammar option from the Tools menu.
Click the Spelling and Grammar button on the Standard bar.
Press F7
2. The Spelling dialog box appears.
a. The unrecognized word is displayed in the Not in Dictionary text box and the suggestions are displayed in the Suggestions box.
b. On clicking the desired button, the respective action takes place and the next word is highlighted.
c. Repeat this step until a message box saying The spell check is complete is displayed.
3. Click OK.


Using a list, you can arrange the contents in a document. This makes it simple for the reader to comprehend the main ideas. Step-by-step instructions to a succession of points can be created in lists. A numbered or bulleted list can be created using a word processor.

To create a bulleted or numbered list, do as follows:
1. Place the cursor at the position where you want to start the list.
2. Select Bullets and Numbering option from the Format menu.
3. The Bullets and Numbering dialog box appears.
4. Click the Bullets tab or the Numbering type tab.
5. Choose the desired style and click OK.
6. Type the list item. After typing each list item, press the Enter key


Information can be displayed as tables in a document. A tabular arrangement makes information easier to read or deliver. A table is a collection of rows and columns of data. Information is organised into rows and columns using tables in word processors. A table like the one in your class is called a table.
In a table, a column is a row of cells arranged vertically.
In a table, a row is a horizontal row of cells.
A rectangular box known as a cell is created by the junction of a row and a column.

Tables can be created in OpenOffice Writer in any one of the following ways:
• Using Table button
• Using Table menu

Creating a Table Using the Table Button

The steps to create a table using the Table button are:
1. Click the drop-down menu arrow of the Table button on the Standard bar.
2. A grid of cells appears. Move the mouse pointer in the grid to highlight the number of rows and columns required in the table.
3. A table will be inserted at the insertion point.

Creating a Table Using the Table Menu

The steps to create a table using the Table menu are:
1. Select Table ➢ Insert ➢ Table.
Press Ctrl + F12.
Select Insert ➢ Table
2. The Insert Table dialog box appears.
a. Specify the number of columns
b. Specify the number of rows
4. Click OK

Inserting Rows

You can easily insert (add) new rows in a table in a Writer document. The steps to insert rows in a table are:
1. Position the cursor in the cell where you want to insert
a new row or a column.
2. Select Table ➢ Insert ➢ Rows.
3. The Insert Rows dialog box appears .
a. Specify the number of rows to be inserted.
b. Select the position – Before or After the selected row.
c. Click OK.

Inserting Columns

Columns can also be inserted in a document. The steps to insert columns in a table are:
1. Position the cursor in the cell where you want to insert a new column.
2. Select Table ➢ Insert ➢ Columns.
3. The Insert Columns dialog box appears.
a. Specify the number of columns to be inserted.
b. Select the position – Before or After the selected column.
c. Click OK.

Deleting Rows

To delete rows in a table:
1. Select the rows to be deleted.
2. Select Table ➢ Delete ➢ Rows.

Deleting Columns

To delete columns in a table:
1. Select the columns to be deleted.
2. Select Table ➢ Delete ➢ Columns.

Merging the Cells of the table

You can also merge (combine) cells in a table. The steps are:
1. Select the cells to be merged.
2. Select Table ➢ Merge cells.

Splitting the Cells of the table

You can split (divide) a cell into required number of rows or columns. The steps are:
1. Click in the cell to be split.
2. Select Table ➢ Split Cells.
3. The Split Cells dialog box appears (Fig. 29).
a. Enter the number of parts in which you want to split the selected cell.
b. Specify the direction—Horizontally or Vertically—in which you want to split the cell.
c. Click OK.

Applying Borders and Background to the table

You can apply borders and background color to the entire table or selected cells of the table. The steps to apply borders and background to a table are:
1. Select the table or rows/columns/cells.
2. Select Table ➢Table Properties.
3. The Table Format dialog box appears
a. Click the Borders tab. Select the line style and line color.
b. Click the Background tab. Choose the desired background color.
c. Click OK.


You can add page numbers in the header or footer area. The steps are.
1. Click in the header or footer area.
2. Select Insert➢ Fields ➢ Page Number.


To print a document, do the following:
1. Select Print option from File menu.
Click the Print button on the Standard bar.
3. The Print dialog box appears.
a. Select the printer.
b. Specify the range of pages to be printed.
c. Specify the number of copies to be printed.
d. Click the Print button


You have already learnt how to save a document in OpenOffice Writer. If you want to save a file in a different format other than the default format .odt of OpenOffice Writer. The Steps are:
1. Select Save As option of File menu.
2. The Save As dialog box appears.
a. Select the File type from the Save as type drop-down list.
b. Type the filename.
c. Click Save button.

Employability Skills Class 11 Notes

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Green Skills Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Employability Skills as per the board pattern.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

green skills class 11 notes
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in 

Only when the air, water, and food are clean can one lead a healthy life. This specifically indicates that health (environment) and riches are interdependent and that one cannot exist without the other.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

What is Green Economy?

Collins’ English Dictionary defines Green Economy as Biological economy that is concerned with renewable energy, green buildings, clean transportation, water, waste and land management.

This would mean that we develop choices that support the economy without compromising the ecological concerns. A green economy is defined by the UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) as one that uses resources wisely and has low carbon emissions.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

Components of Green Economy

Renewable Energy – Energy produced from renewable resources is referred to as renewable energy. Today, a stable supply of power is required due to the expanding demand for technology. We must support alternative energy sources like solar, wind, and wave energy in order to meet the demand.

Green Buildings – Green buildings use sustainable energy sources, decrease the waste of natural resources like water, and effectively manage their waste. They also use renewable energy during construction.

Green Transport – There are now alternatives to the traditional forms of transportation that once relied on gasoline or diesel thanks to technological advancements. The government of India recently pushed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) to power automobiles.

Water Management – Many major cities throughout the world are experiencing an alarming situation as a result of the current disaster in Cape Town, often known as “Day Zero.” The world has suffered from the drought-like circumstances, but the economy has also been impacted. The only way to solve this issue is for our communities to implement Rain Water Harvesting Systems (RWHS) in order to lessen water waste and refill the ground water levels.

Waste Management – Any kind of waste will contribute to the contamination of the air, water, and land. Additionally, this results in resource waste. Environmental damage is a result of our need to always buy something new and throw away anything used. In light of this, it is important for us to practise the four Rs and one U: REFUSE, REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE, and UPCYCLE.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

Policy Initiatives for Green Economy in India

These days, there is a lot of discussion in the nation concerning environmental deterioration and ecological imbalance. The Indian government has advocated and started a variety of measures to support sustainable growth in order to allay these worries. We’ll read a few of these policies now:


The Indian Parliament passed the Wildlife Protection Act in 1972 to save various plant and animal species. There were just five recognised national parks in India prior to 1972. The Act, among other changes, established lists of plant and animal species that were to be protected; hunting or harvesting these species was virtually forbidden. The Act covers matters related to, ancillary to, or incidental to the protection of wild animals, birds, and plants.


The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 is a comprehensive piece of legislation that governs the state and federal authorities in charge of monitoring water pollution as well as the scope of pollution control boards. In order to prevent and regulate water pollution in India, the Indian parliament passed the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. In order to remove any ambiguities and give the Pollution Control Board more authority, the legislation was revised in 1988.


A statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change is India’s Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (Mo.E.F.C). The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 allowed for its establishment. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981 also gives the CPCB authority and responsibilities.


The purpose of this Act is to regulate foreign vessel fishing in specific Indian maritime zones and to address related issues.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes


The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 is a law passed by the Indian Parliament to address concerns related to, ancillary to, or incidental to the conservation of forests. In 1988, it underwent another change. [1] The entirety of India is covered under this statute. To prevent future clearing of India’s forests, the Indian Parliament passed it. On October 25, 1980, the law went into effect.


The Environment Protection Act of 1986 was passed by the Indian Parliament. The Environment Protection Act of 1986 was passed by the Indian government in accordance with Article 253 of the Constitution in the wake of the Bhopal Tragedy. It was passed in March 1986 and went into effect on November 19, 1986. The Act’s goal is to put the decisions of the UN Conference on the Human Environment into practise.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes


The fundamental goal of the National Forest Policy of 1988 is to maintain ecological balance, especially atmospheric equilibrium, which is essential for the survival of all life forms, including human, animal, and plant life.


In order to impose strict accountability for harm resulting from incidents caused by the handling of hazardous substances, the Central Government established the National Environment Tribunal in 1995 (via the National Environmental Tribunal Act 1995).


The National Green Tribunal was established on October 18, 2010, in accordance with the National Green Tribunal Act 2010, to effectively and promptly handle cases involving environmental protection, the conservation of forests, and other natural resources, as well as the enforcement of any environmental legal rights and the provision of relief and compensation for damages to persons and property, as well as for matters related to or incidental to those cases.


The increased commitment of the international community to sustainable development served as the impetus for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It symbolised progress in the preservation of biological diversity, the judicious and equitable distribution of the advantages brought about by the exploitation of genetic resources, and the sustainable usage of its constituent parts. Following an extensive consultation process spanning eight years, India passed the Biological Diversity Act in 2002 in accordance with the convention on biological diversity (CBD), to which it was a signatory. Following that, in 2004, the Biological Diversity Rules were announced.


The Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India develops a National Water Policy to direct the development and planning of water resources as well as their best use. In September 1987, the first National Water Policy was enacted. In 2002 and subsequently in 2012, it was reviewed and revised.

Green Skills Class 11 Notes

Stakeholders in Green Economy and Their Role


Government plays an important role in any economy. Similar to this, the government of a country’s push for the need to green the economy may be seen in the green economy. Planning, budgeting, and putting plans into action involve all branches of the government in some capacity. Being involved at every level is crucial in our country’s framework of multi-level government, so everyone is a stakeholder, whether it be the federal, state, or local businesses.

The Private Agencies

Private organisations play an essential influence in shaping the policies.
The economy will be severely impacted if the policies are set but the private agencies don’t carry them out as intended. The private organisations play a dual role. These are the people who make policies, but they are also the ones who are impacted by even the smallest adjustments.

The People

The nation’s citizens are the final but most crucial stakeholder in a green economy. Any economy would not exist without its population. The success of the numerous policies the government implements depends on how well the public accepts the changes. The policy will inevitably fail if it has a detrimental impact on the populace. Therefore, it is important for the government to consider both the demographics and the interests of its citizens when formulating policy.

Employability Skills Class 11 Notes

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Employability Skills as per the board pattern.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes

entrepreneurial skills class 11 notes
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in 

Entrepreneurship starts with thinking and acting on a business idea. However, before jumping to an idea, it is important to develop certain entrepreneurial skills and com potencies in the process. One of the most important skills required to become a successful entrepreneur are problem solving and creativity.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes


In sociology, values are defined as standards and guidelines that influence a person’s behavior and attitude.

Values are basically the beliefs about what matters the most, how to behave and which goals are important to achieve.

According to Schwartz, some elements of values include:

• Values are based on concepts or beliefs.
• Values guide the selection and evaluation of specific behaviors and events.
• Values are set in an order of relative importance.
• Values differ based on motivational objectives.
• Values are not confined to specific situations or behaviors

There are three types of values:
• Personal
• Professional
• Social

different factors of enterpreneurial skills
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Action Factor – The two main categories of action variables are personality and environment factors because they have a significant impact on both the actions that people take and what matters to them.

Personality factors – The elements that are internal and essential to your personality are known as personality factors. As personality determines how one would naturally behave, they will guide your values. For instance, if you’re an extrovert, you could priorities forming relationships with people.

Environment factors – are those elements that come from outside of you and are part of your surroundings. These aspects of our external environment—things we notice, hear, see, and interact with—influence how we think about what is important. For instance, if you frequently witness pain, you could place a high importance on being nice and helpful.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes

Entrepreneurial Values

An entrepreneur needs to balance between personal, professional and social values.

Personal values – Personal values for an entrepreneur include passion, honesty, integrity, determination,
confidence, wisdom, cooperation, decisiveness, humility etc. 

Professional values – Professional values correspond how an entrepreneur conducts himself or herself in the professional business and workplace environment. Ethics in the business world are also the domain
of professional values.

Social values – Social values are values that make entrepreneurs look beyond the core business and have a
bigger purpose. These values are what drive entrepreneurs to make the business socially acceptable. 

Some entrepreneurial values are as follows:

Independence – Entrepreneurs need to be independent in order to enjoy the feeling of satisfaction. Entrepreneurs that have a strong sense of independence are better equipped to build missions that will move them closer to their objectives.

Respect for work – If an entrepreneur does not respect and value their labour, they cannot succeed. To survive and expand their business, entrepreneurs must work hard and continuously experimenting with new ideas.

Respect for others – An essential value for business owners is respect for one another and for one’s staff. Value for their labour, time, and effort is also included here. It enables the business owner to respect others’ efforts, connect with suppliers, staff, and the community, forge enduring and positive relationships, and boost their self-esteem.

Trust – Trust is a important element for an entrepreneur in many aspects of life, but is frequently ignored in a professional situation. A successful entrepreneur must have confidence in their own vision or aim, as well as in their ability to build trusting relationships with their team members, clients, and suppliers.

Honesty – Being ethical and honest is essential for an entrepreneur. Financing a business, managing the company’s assets, making risky judgments, and making difficult decisions all require honesty.

Vision – Vision clarifies the opportunity and establishes the organization’s goals as it leads the entrepreneur through the business planning process. 

Outstanding performance – Entrepreneurs are constantly prepared to meet and overcome obstacles.
They hold themselves to high standards of quality and performance, and they have the confidence to overcome unforeseen challenges.

Initiative and ownership – By taking the initiative and feeling ownership, entrepreneurs experience immense happiness. They commit to carrying out duties and show initiative in a variety of ways.

Creativity and innovation – Entrepreneurs place a high importance on creativity since they are continuously required to come up with fresh ideas or apply their imagination. Similar to this, they enjoy introducing minor, incremental improvements in a variety of business-related areas.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes


Attitude is defined as a set of beliefs, emotions and behaviours towards a particular place, object,
person, situation, event, ideas or thing.

Entrepreneurial Attitudes

Entrepreneurs frequently display particular views. Similar to this, certain personality traits related to one’s attitude are necessary to have the proper frame of mind for succeeding as an entrepreneur. Here are a few examples:

Use imagination – In business, using imagination and creativity gives entrepreneurs a framework for thinking creatively, considering alternatives, attempting unorthodox methods of doing things, and continuously improvising and iterating.

Take moderate risks – Moderate risk takers are those entrepreneurs who are often characterized as willing to assume a moderate amount of risk in business, being neither overly conservative nor likely to gamble.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes

Look for economic opportunities – Entrepreneurs may experience discomfort in a variety of circumstances when making necessary changes to their teams, technologies, products, missions, etc. An entrepreneur needs to push outside their comfort zone and concentrate on pursuing and experimenting with various business prospects. They have to keep doing it.

Enjoy freedom of decision making and action – A specific activity will not be taken if an entrepreneur does not elect to take it. Entrepreneurs must make a decision and follow through on it. This is the rational course of action for them.

Analyze situations and plan actions – Understanding obstacles in the context of a scenario and planning appropriate action actions are all aspects of having an entrepreneurial attitude.

Be able to deal with fear – Fear is a part of life for everyone. You can overcome fear by being aware of this truth. Many difficult business responsibilities, such as paying back a loan, introducing a new product, firing staff, etc., can put strain on and frighten an entrepreneur.

Accept feedback and criticism positively – Entrepreneurs can benefit much from constructive criticism. Customers, business partners, consultants, etc. may frequently criticize an idea or a particular behavior.

Get involved in all activities – An entrepreneur cannot afford to procrastinate or be laid back.
While planning helps, it is important for an entrepreneur to make timely decisions.

Have clarity of purpose – An entrepreneur will always have the confidence to carry out their plan when they have clarity of purpose. An entrepreneur cannot motivate their team, potential customers, or even vendors without a clear sense of purpose.

Entrepreneurial Skills Class 11 Notes

Believe the change you want to bring – An entrepreneurial mentality includes a strong sense of self-belief and faith. This is due to the possibility of an entrepreneur becoming weighed down by many issues. It is essential to have faith in oneself, one’s goals, one’s organization, and one’s team.

Be passionate – Entrepreneurial success depends on enthusiasm because without a strong sense of commitment to the venture, it is difficult to deal with difficult circumstances or overcome obstacles.

Be flexible – The entrepreneurial journey includes unexpected difficulties, challenges, and obstacles. An entrepreneur needs to keep a positive outlook and be adaptable to adversity and uncertainty.

Do not be egoistic – It’s essential to keep one’s ego in check when managing staff, forming alliances, and listening to advise. While it is not always required to win favors with others, it is nonetheless important to be receptive to fresh opinions, especially when they don’t seem to make sense at first.

Strong work ethic – An entrepreneur’s work is guided by their work ethic, which is a set of moral standards.
A strong work ethic enables one to regularly produce work of a high caliber, and the results inspire one to continue in the right direction.

Employability Skills Class 11 Notes

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Employability Skills as per the board pattern.

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

self management skills class 11 notes
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in 

The basic and important aspect of self – management is physical appearance, grooming, mannerisms and etiquettes of a person. This creates first image in the mind of people about others.

Impressive Appearance and Grooming

Impressive appearance and well-groomed behaviour reflect our preparedness to handle the world around us. God has blessed us with this beautiful life and our body. It is our utmost responsibility to respect the almighty by keeping and presenting our body in best of shape. It all starts with oneself.

Importance of dressing appropriately, looking decent and positive body language

Dressing appropriately, looking decent and positive body language all create a positive first impression.

Following points highlight the importance of dressing appropriately, looking decent and positive body language. 

  • Promotes self-respect 
  • Boosts self-confidence 
  • It’s a step to overall improvement 
  • It shows your attention to detail 
  • Every expression leaves an impression 
  • Your attire speaks before your words 
  • Draws the right kind of attention and sends the right message

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Personal grooming checklist

We have already seen the importance of well-groomed individuals. Following is the personal grooming checklist that you should strictly follow. 

  • Maintaining health by seeing a doctor when necessary. 
  • Maintaining health by eating well-balanced diet. 
  • Maintaining health by using good posture. 
  • Bathing or shower every day. 
  • Shampooing the hair regularly. 
  • Styling hair in a neat (away from my face and off my collar) manner. 
  • Brushing teeth regularly (at least twice daily). 
  • Trimming fingernails and keeping them clean. 
  • Wearing properly fitted clothes. 
  • Donning clean and ironed clothes. 
  • Changing socks and stockings daily to reduce foot odour. 
  • Avoiding wearing jewelry or perfume with uniform.

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Self-Exploration Techniques

Self-exploration helps develop a clear understanding of self-interests, attitudes, skills, wants and needs, which guide you to choose your profession for life. 

Following approaches may help people self explore.

Learning – Formal / Informal/ Self-directed learning leads to acquiring some skills. Out of the learnt skills some skills may be preferred skills, and may guide us shape our career.

Career Counsellor / computerized career information systems – Career counsellor and career information systems can help one with information on courses and the outcome of the courses.

Self-reflection/ Inquiry – This is a thoughtful process where people discover themselves through reflection on past experiences and patterns of their own behaviour. 

Feedback – Peers, family and mentors provide us with genuine feedback which help us identify our hidden talents and strengths. 

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Team Work Skills

Team refers to a group of people who have complementary skills and work towards a common goal. . Teams result in higher productivity. Teams are very useful in performing work that is complicated, complex, interrelated, and /or more voluminous than one person can handle. 

Important factors that influence team building

Work Team Structure – It includes goals and objectives, operating guidelines, performance measures, and role specification.

Work Team Process – Work team competitiveness and cooperative behaviour need to be considered while building a team. 

Diversity – Diversity influences team building as well as effectiveness. Diversity shall be ensured in gender, background and competencies. Diverse team also ensures creativity.

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Factors influencing team work 

Following factors may influence team work.

Team norms – Team norms is the standards or rules that govern the performance of the group members. These rules can be written or unwritten.

Team cohesion – Bonding between the group members will come easily and together they contribute to the larger goal.

Social loafing – Social loafing or free riding occurs when one or more group members rely on the efforts of other group members and fail to contribute their time and effort. Identifying individual contribution can help nullify the effect of free riding.

Loss of individuality – It is a social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition and responsibility for individual behaviour. 

Self Management Skills Class 11 Notes

Time Management Strategies and Techniques

Time management is the process of planning and exercising control of time spent on various activities to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

Following are the set of activities we need to take up for time management

Setting and prioritizing goals – We have option to steer our life or to let it run on its own. If we take charge of our life and our goals, we will be able to lead a meaningful life. For leading a successful life, we should create our targets and aims.

Creating a schedule – Creating a schedule instills discipline and punctuality and ensure efficient utilization of our time.

Making lists of tasks – This should be our first to-do thing every morning. List of tasks shall be prioritized for making our day worthwhile.

Balancing work and leisure – Work is important and equally important is leisure activity to help us unwind and recharge for the important tasks.

Breaking large tasks into smaller tasks – We should break large tasks into smaller ones. Smaller tasks can be finished in lesser time. When we will finish few small tasks, we feel motivated to complete others too.

Employability Skills Class 11 Notes

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Communication Skills Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Employability Skills as per the board pattern.

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

communication skills class 11 notes
Image Source – CBSE | Image by – cbseacademic.nic.in 

Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules.

Effective communication aids in our understanding of others and our environment. It aids in overcoming differences, developing mutual respect and trust, and establishing favorable circumstances for exchanging original concepts and resolving issues.

The following figure represents types of communication

type of communication cycle
Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Learning objectives of Effective communication

  1. Development of Interpersonal Skills
  2. To express effectively & with maximum efficiency

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

The 4 Communication Styles

There are four basic communication styles: 

  1. Passive
  2. Aggressive
  3. passive-aggressive 
  4. Assertive.

Passive – People with passive communication tend to behave indifferently. People who are passive communicators typically don’t express their demands or sentiments. Lack of eye contact and poor body alignment are common factors of passive communicators.

Aggressive – Speaking with a loud, demanding voice, maintaining close eye contact, dominating or controlling others by blaming, frightening, criticizing, threatening, or attacking them, among other behaviors, are all examples of the aggressive communication style.

Aggressive communicators frequently give orders, ask impolite questions, and ignore other people.

Passive-Aggressive – Users of the passive-aggressive communication style may appear passive on the outside, but they may feel helpless or trapped within, developing animosity that causes them to seethe or act out in subtly, covertly, or secretive ways.

Ultimately, passive-aggressive communicators are aware of their demands but occasionally find it difficult to express them verbally. They are most likely to communicate via body language.

Assertive – Assertive communicators can express their own needs, desires, ideas and feelings, while also considering the needs of others. Assertive communicators aim for both sides to win in a situation, balancing one’s rights with the rights of others.

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Writing Skills

What is Writing?

Writing is a form of communication that allows students to put their feelings and ideas on paper, to organize their knowledge and beliefs into convincing arguments, and to convey meaning through well constructed text.


The main goal of this exercise is to develop fundamental sentence-writing abilities. The categories of sentences and the purposes of each of their constituent components are mentioned below.

sentences: simple, compound, and complex

Simple sentence

A simple sentence is one independent clause that has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

  1. Must have a subject and a verb. 
  2. Must express a complete thought. 
  3. Must only have one clause. 


  • I am out of paper for the printer. 
  • Will you help me with the math homework?
Compound Sentence

A compound sentence allows us to share a lot of information by combining two or more related thoughts into one sentence. It combines two independent clauses by using a conjunction like “and.” This creates sentences that are more useful than writing many sentences with separate thoughts.

Example – 

I drove to the office, and then I walked to the cabin. 

Complex sentence 

A complex sentence is a sentence that combines one independent clause with at least one dependent clause. 


Although Rohan had some doubts, he found the courses very useful.

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes


Phrases are a group of words that work together to communicate an element of speech. 

Types of phrases

Noun Phrase – A noun phrase is any noun or pronoun along with its modifiers

Example – i) The school children ii) Yesterday’s newspaper

 Verb Phrase – A verb phrase is any number of verbs working together

Example i) Had been sleeping ii) Will contact iii) May have written

Prepositional Phrase – A prepositional phrase always starts with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun (and its modifiers) that is called the object of the preposition:

Example i) Through the wheat field ii) Preposition: through iii) Object of the preposition: the wheat field

Verbal Phrases –There are three types of verbal phrases: participial phrases, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases. Each is explained below.

  1. Participial Phrase – Participial phrases start with either a present or past participle.
  2. Gerund Phrase – A gerund phrase is a present participle (and its modifiers) that acts like a noun. It can take on a variety of jobs in the sentence.
  3. Infinitive Phrase – An infinitive phrase is the infinitive and its modifiers:
  4. Appositive Phrase – An appositive phrase is a phrase that renames an earlier noun or pronoun
  5. Absolute Phrase – Absolute phrases are the trickiest to identify. These phrases are not closely connected to the rest of the sentence; they don’t describe a specific word, but modify the whole sentence. They add extra information and are usually separated by commas (or dashes). 

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Parts of a Sentence 

Every sentence can be broken into two parts 

a) Complete Subject – The complete subject consists of simple subject ( The noun or the pronoun is the subject is about) and its modifiers

b) Complete Predicate – The complete predicate is made of up of verb and its modifiers. 

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Parts of speech

  1. A category to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions. In English the main parts of speech are noun, pronoun, adjective, determiner, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. 

The following figure represents eight parts of speech

  1. NOUN- A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. London, Flower, Happiness 
  2. PRONOUN- A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. She, we, they, it 
  3. VERB- A verb expresses action or being. Jump ,is 
  4. ADJECTIVE -An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. Pretty, old 
  5. ADVERB -An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Gently, extremely 
  6. PREPOSITION -a preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. By, with, 
  7. CONJUNCTION -A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses. T The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. 
  8. INTERJECTION – An interjection is a word used to express emotion. Oh! ,Wow! The following link will help to reinforce the concept

Communication Skills Class 11 Notes

Persuasion Skills

Persuasion is the process of convincing someone else to carry out an action or agree with an idea. In the workplace, persuasion is used to sell products, recruit team members and increase productivity. An employee with strong persuasion skills can influence others to perform well and succeed.

Employability Skills Class 11 Notes

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