Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers. Al the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Social Science.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
Answer –
Social – The population of Russia was 85% agricultural. There was some industry, although it was mostly privately owned. The division of the workforce was done according to occupation and based on their skills. The differences between the workers could be seen in how they dressed and behaved. The workforce was divided.

Economic Condition – The majority of industries were owned privately by industrialists. At that time, the output of iron and steel are four time more while coal production was doubled. Industrialists owned the majority of businesses, but the government controlled the timing and pay schedules for big factories. Russia’s railway network was expanded.

Political Condition – Before to 1914, political parties were banned. Socialists who valued Marx’s ideas created the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1898. This party split into the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks in 1903. The incident known as “Bloody Sunday” happened in 1905. About 300 people were injured and 100 workers killed. Bloody Sunday was the first in a chain of events that contributed to the 1905 revolution.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Answer – Before 1917, the working population in Russia was different from other European nations. The majority of people in Russia were farmers. The Russian Empire’s depend on agriculture for about 85% of their income.

This ratio was higher than in the majority of European nations. Between 40% and 50% of the population lived in France and Germany. Farmers produced both for the market and for their personal consumption, and Russia was a significant exporter of grain.

3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Answer – Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to disappointments among the masses for Tsar’s policies. The workers’ conditions were horrible at the time. They had to work more than 15 hours a day. The situation faced by the farmers was similar. They were poor and landless.

The tsarist autocracy was also significantly impacted by the First World War. All these factors led to the rise of revolution and the collapse of Tsar autocracy.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

4. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.
Answer –
Main events of February Revolution

  • February 1917 – There was a food shartage among the workers quaters.
  • 23rd February 1917 – The workers from the fifty factories called a strike and women played a important role in these strikes.
  • 25th February 1917 – The government suspended the Duma.
  • 27th February 1917 – People raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy.
  • Petrograd Soviet was formed.
  • March 1917 – A Provisional Government was established by Soviet and Duma leaders to run the nation. Ending to the Monarchy.

Main events of the October Revolution:

  • Confilict between the provisional government and the Bolsheviks grew.
  • Soviets and factories were brought together.
  • A military revolutionary committe was appointed.
  • Military men who were loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers.
  • Pro-Government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.

Effects of the October Revolution.

  • Industries and banks were nationalise
  • The Land was declared social propery
  • New uniforms were designed for the army
  • All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country.
  • Many experiments were done in Arts and Architecture.
  • Trade unions were kept under party control.

5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Answer – The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution are
a. Bank and Industries were nationalized
b. Land was declared social property
c. Old aristocratic titles were banned
d. New uniform were designed for the army and the officials
e. Houses were divided according to the family riquirements.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

6. Write a few lines to show what you know about:
a. kulaks
b. the Duma
c. women workers between 1900 and 1930
d. the Liberals
e. Stalin’s collectivisation programme.

Answer –
a. kulaks – In Russian and Soviet history, a kulak was a rich or powerful peasant who usually had a large farm, a number of cattle and horses, and the financial ability to hire labour and lease property.

b. The Duma – The Duma made up of landowners, representatives of the industrial middle class, merchants, city intellectuals, and peasants.

c. Women workers between 1900 and 1930 – The employment of women in factories was important. They made up 31% of the workforce. They were employed, but the pay was lower then men and working conditions were also poor.

d. The Liberals – They treated all religions equally. They believed that the only men can give vote those who had property. They favoured elective parliamentary government.

e. Stalin’s collectivisation programme – Stalin imposed farm collectivization as a solution to deal with the grain shortage. Peasants were made to work in kolkhoz, or communal farms, where they divided the profits equally.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Question and Answers

7. What Changed after October?
Answer – After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks primarily brought about the following changes –
a. They were strongly opposed to private property because of that majority of companies and banks were nationalised
b. The nobility’s land might be taken by the peasants after it was declared social property

8. What is the Age of social change?
Answer – The principles of freedom, equality, and equity were promoted by the French Revolution. Many people had different opinions on the freedoms that people should have and how the government should operate.

error: Content is protected !!