Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes, chapter aims to distinguish democratic elections from non-democratic elections. It is likely that the chapter discusses how democratic elections allow citizens to choose their representatives and hold them accountable for their actions. It may also cover the different processes and systems used for conducting elections, such as the use of electoral colleges or proportional representation. Overall, this chapter aims to provide an understanding of the role of elections in a democratic system of governance.
Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes
Why Do We Need Elections?
- Elections provide a mechanism for the people to choose their representatives and hold them accountable.
- Elections give citizens the opportunity to participate in the political process and have a say in how they are governed.
- Elections ensure that the government is responsive to the needs and concerns of the people.
- Elections provide a peaceful and orderly way to transfer power from one government to another.
- Elections promote stability and legitimacy by giving the government a mandate to govern.
- Elections allow for the expression of diverse viewpoints and the competition of ideas.
- Elections foster accountability and transparency by requiring candidates to publicly declare their positions and platforms.
What Makes an Election Democratic?
- Universal suffrage: All citizens have the right to vote, regardless of their race, gender, religion, or socio-economic status.
- Free and fair: Elections are conducted in a transparent and impartial manner, with no interference or manipulation by the government or other outside groups.
- Competitive: Multiple candidates are allowed to run for office and there is a level playing field for all candidates to campaign and present their platforms to the voters.
- Informed: The voters have access to accurate and unbiased information about the candidates and the issues at stake in the election.
- Secret ballot: The voters are able to cast their ballots privately, without fear of intimidation or retribution.
- Counted accurately: The votes are counted fairly and the results are announced accurately and in a timely manner.
- Acceptance of results: The losing candidates and their supporters accept the results of the election and peacefully transfer power to the winners.
Here are some potential benefits and drawbacks of political competition:
- Political competition allows for the expression of diverse viewpoints and the competition of ideas.
- It promotes accountability by requiring politicians to seek the support of the voters and be responsive to their needs and concerns.
- It can encourage politicians to be more creative and innovative in their policy proposals.
- It can motivate politicians to work harder and be more dedicated to their constituents.
- Excessive political competition can lead to polarizing rhetoric and divisive campaigning.
- It can create an atmosphere of winner-takes-all, where the focus is on winning at all costs rather than finding common ground and working for the common good.
- It can lead to negative campaigning and the spread of misinformation.
- It can discourage cooperation and compromise, which are necessary for effective governance.
What is Our System of Election?
- The Election Commission of India is responsible for conducting elections and ensuring their fairness and integrity.
- Elections are held using a secret ballot system.
- Political parties and independent candidates are allowed to contest elections.
- The candidate who receives the most votes in each constituency is declared the winner and becomes the representative for that area.
- Elections are held regularly in India for the Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament) and Vidhan Sabha (state assemblies).
- The party or coalition with the most seats in the Lok Sabha forms the government, with the leader of that party or coalition becoming the Prime Minister.
- In the Vidhan Sabha, the party or coalition with the most seats forms the government and the leader of that party or coalition becomes the Chief Minister.
- Elections are held after every 5 years, and the term of all elected representatives ends at this time.
- Elections held in all constituencies at the same time are called a General Election.
- The Constitution of India guarantees the right to vote to all citizens over the age of 18, regardless of their religion, caste, gender, or socio-economic status.
- Elections held to fill a vacancy in a single constituency caused by death or resignation are called a By-Election.
- India is divided into electoral constituencies for the purpose of elections.
- For Lok Sabha elections, there are 543 constituencies. The elected representative is called a Member of Parliament (MP).
- Each state is divided into a specific number of Assembly constituencies. The elected representative is called a Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA).
- Each Parliamentary constituency has several Assembly constituencies within it.
- The same principle applies for Panchayat and Municipal elections, with each village or town divided into several “wards” that function as constituencies.
- Each electoral constituency represents one seat in the assembly.
- The Constitution of India provides for the reservation of certain electoral constituencies for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).
- The purpose of reserved constituencies is to ensure that these historically disadvantaged groups are represented in the government and have a voice in the political process.
- The number of reserved constituencies is determined on the basis of the population of SCs and STs in each state.
- In the Lok Sabha, 84 seats are reserved for the SC and 47 for the ST.
- Candidates from SCs and STs are eligible to contest elections from both reserved and non-reserved constituencies.
- In addition to SCs and STs, the Constitution also provides for the reservation of constituencies for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in some states.
- The allocation of reserved constituencies is reviewed every 10 years through the process of delimitation.
- The Electoral Roll, also known as the Voters’ List, is a list of eligible voters in a democratic election.
- It is the responsibility of the government to compile the list of eligible voters.
- In order to vote, voters are required to show identification, such as an Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) or other proof of identity like a ration card or driving license.
- While the Election Photo Identity Card is recommended, it is not currently mandatory for voting. voters can show many other proofs of identity.
Nomination of Candidates
- Any eligible voter can also become a candidate in elections.
- Candidates must be at least 25 years old.
- To become a candidate, a person must fill out a nomination form and pay a security deposit.
- The candidate must provide information about any criminal cases pending against them, their assets and liabilities, and their educational qualifications.
- This information is made available to the public so that voters can make informed decisions.
- Election campaigns in India take place over a period of two weeks between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.
- During the campaign period, candidates and political parties engage in activities such as contacting voters, holding election meetings, and mobilizing supporters.
- There are rules and regulations governing election campaigns in India, including spending limits and guidelines for the content and placement of campaign advertisements.
- All political parties in India have agreed to a Model Code of Conduct that sets out additional rules for election campaigns, including prohibitions on the use of places of worship for election propaganda and the use of government resources for campaigning.
- It is illegal for parties or candidates to bribe or threaten voters, appeal to them on the basis of caste or religion, or use government resources for election campaigns.
- If any political party violates these rules, their election may be rejected by the court.
- Once elections are announced, ministers are not allowed to lay the foundation stones of any projects, take any major policy decisions, or make promises of providing public facilities.
Polling and Counting of Votes
Election day is the day on which voters go to the polls to cast their ballots in an election. On election day, polling booths are set up at various locations throughout the jurisdiction where the election is being held. Voters go to a polling booth in their local area to cast their vote.
- On election day, voters go to a polling booth to cast their vote.
- At the polling booth, election officials verify the identity of the voter and allow them to cast their vote.
- Candidates or their agents may be present at the polling booth to observe the voting process and ensure that it is fair.
How the Voting take place –
- Ballot papers and electronic voting machines (EVMs) are used to record votes in elections.
- Ballot papers list the names of the candidates and their party symbols. EVMs display the names of the candidates and party symbols on a screen.
- To cast their vote, a voter marks a ballot paper or presses a button on an EVM corresponding to the candidate they want to vote for.
- After polling is completed, the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure location.
- A few days later, the EVMs are opened and the votes are counted.
- The candidate with the highest number of votes is declared the winner.
What Makes Election in India Democratic?
1) Independent Election Commission
- The Election Commission (EC) of India is responsible for conducting elections in the country.
- The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India and heads the EC.
- The EC has wide-ranging powers to control and oversee the conduct of elections, including implementing the Code of Conduct and punishing candidates or parties that violate it.
- During the election period, the EC can issue guidelines to the government and transfer government officials to ensure that the election process is free and fair.
- Government officials who are on election duty work under the control of the EC rather than the government.
2) Popular Participation
- Voter turnout is a measure of the participation of people in an election. It is calculated as the percentage of eligible voters who cast their vote.
- In India, voter turnout is generally higher among disadvantaged and marginalized groups, such as the poor and illiterate, compared to more privileged groups.
- Many people in India believe that they can influence the policies and programs of political parties through their participation in elections.
- Voter interest in election-related activities has been increasing over the years in India.
3) Acceptance of Election Outcome
- The outcome of an election is an important indicator of its fairness and freedom.
- In India, ruling parties often lose elections at both the national and state levels.
- In contrast to the US, where incumbent elected representatives rarely lose elections, about half of sitting MPs or MLAs in India lose elections.
- Candidates with a reputation for buying votes or having criminal connections are often unsuccessful in elections in India.
- In general, electoral outcomes are accepted as the “people’s verdict” by the defeated party, with only a few disputed elections.
Challenges to Free and Fair Elections
There are several challenges to the conduct of free and fair elections in India:
- Money power: In India, candidates and political parties often spend large amounts of money on their election campaigns, including on activities such as advertising, transportation, and gifts for voters. This can create an uneven playing field and give an advantage to wealthy candidates or parties.
- Influence of criminal elements: In some cases, candidates with criminal connections or involvement in illegal activities may contest elections and use their resources or connections to influence the outcome.
- Misuse of state resources: There have been instances of ruling parties in India using government resources, such as vehicles, office space, and personnel, for campaigning purposes. This can give an unfair advantage to the ruling party and undermine the fairness of the election.
- Misinformation and propaganda: Candidates and parties may spread misinformation or engage in propaganda in order to influence voters. This can create confusion and undermine the integrity of the election process.
- Voter suppression: There have been instances of voter suppression in India, including the intimidation of voters, the manipulation of voter lists, and the denial of access to polling stations.
- Electronic voting machines: There have been concerns raised about the security and reliability of electronic voting machines (EVMs) used in India, including the possibility of tampering or hacking.
We (CBSE Skill Education) have discuss the importance of electoral competition among parties in ensuring that the needs and concerns of the people are represented in government. The conclusion may also touch on the importance of fair and transparent elections, as well as the role of citizens in participating in the electoral process by voting and engaging with political parties and candidates. Overall, the conclusion of this chapter would likely emphasize the central role that elections play in democratic societies and the importance of ensuring that the electoral process is fair and accountable to the people.
The CBSE Social Science Class 9 page on http://cbseskilleducation.com is a useful resource for students studying Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics. The page offers notes and other study materials that can help students prepare for exams, including the CBSE and other competitive exams. It is a good idea for students to regularly visit the page and stay up to date with the latest information and resources.
Social Science Class 9 Notes
CBSE Class 9 History
Chapter 1: The French Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes
CBSE Class 9 Geography
Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Drainage Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Climate Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes
Chapter 6: Population Class 9 Notes
CBSE Class 9 Political Science
Chapter 1 – What is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2 – Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3 – Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4 – Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5 – Democratic Rights Class 9 Notes