Food Security in India Class 9 NCERT Solutions

Food Security in India Class 9 NCERT Solutions – These solutions have been prepared by subject experts to help students prepare for their exams with ease. They can be downloaded in PDF format and used as a reference tool for a quick review of all the topics. The NCERT solutions provide detailed and step-wise explanations for all the answers to the questions given in the chapter exercises, facilitating a smooth and precise understanding of the concepts.

Food Security in India Class 9 NCERT Solutions

Q. How is food security ensured in India?

Answer – The Indian government meticulously crafted a food security system, which consists of two parts: (a) buffer stock and (b) public distribution system, to ensure that food is accessible to all societal segments. In India, food security is protected in the following ways:

  • Food availability includes both locally produced food and government-saved supplies from prior years.
  • Food is widely available and reaches all of the nation’s residents.
  • Food affordability – Everyone should be able to afford nutritious and safe food.
Q. Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?

Answer – Those who are below the poverty level may always be food insecure, while people who are better off may become so due to catastrophe or calamity. Along with not being able to purchase food, the social makeup also contributes to food insecurity. Food insecurity is more common among SCs, STs, and some OBCs (lower castes among them) who have either poor land-based or very low land production. Those affected by a natural disaster are also likely to be food insecure outside of these areas.

Q. Which states are more food insecure in India?

Answer – The largest food-insecure states in India are the eastern and south-eastern portions of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, sections of Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Q. Do you believe that green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?

Answer – India changed its approach to agriculture, bringing in the Green Revolution, particularly for the cultivation of rice and wheat. Since then, India has avoided hunger despite unfavourable weather since a variety of crops have been planted throughout the nation. Even in unfavourable national conditions, the supply of food grains ensured that the government had a proper food security system. As a result, it may be claimed that the green revolution has rendered India food grain self-sufficient.

Q. A section of people in India are still without food. Explain?

Answer – Despite a significant rise in the production of food grains in India, a portion of the population still lacks access to food. People are unable to buy food to nourish themselves and their families as a result of the rising cost of commodities. The persistent hunger that impoverished people experience in rural regions can also be brought on by unemployment.

Q. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or calamity?

Answer – The production and cultivation of food grains are significantly impacted by disasters or calamities. As a result of the decline in production, there is a shortage of food grains, which leads to higher food grain prices. If the disaster lasts for a longer period of time, the impacted area can potentially develop food insecurity.

Q. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?

Answer – Hunger is a critical indicator of food security and poverty, with two primary forms: seasonal and chronic hunger. Seasonal hunger is linked to unemployment throughout the year, particularly in urban areas with temporary workforces and rural areas with seasonal agricultural activity. Chronic hunger, on the other hand, arises from consistently inadequate diets in terms of both quantity and quality. This type of hunger is common among people in poverty who cannot afford even the basic necessities for survival.

Q. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?

Answer – The government has implemented several schemes to promote food security and welfare among the poor, including the Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and Annapurna Scheme (APS). Launched in 2000, the AAY provides 25 kg of food grains to the poorest below-poverty-line families covered under the targeted public distribution system at a highly subsidized rate. The APS, also launched in 2000, aims to provide food to senior citizens who are not covered by the National Old Age Pension Scheme, with eligibility for applicants aged 65 and above.

Q. Why buffer stock is created by the government?

Answer – The government builds up a buffer stock of food grains so that it can be delivered to places with a food shortage and to the poorest classes of society at a price significantly below market value. A buffer stock also aids in addressing the issue of food scarcity after bad weather, catastrophes, or tragedies. Thus, keeping buffer stock is a measure the government takes to guarantee food security.

Q. Write notes on:

(a) Minimum support price – The Food Corporation of India procures surplus wheat and rice from farmers in states with excess production, paying them a pre-determined Minimum Support Price (MSP) for their crops. The government announces the MSP prior to the sowing season each year, and the purchased food grains are then stored in granaries. This process enables the government to support farmers and maintain a steady supply of food grains for distribution, contributing to food security and stability in the market.

(b) Buffer stock – The government purchases food grains, primarily wheat and rice, as buffer stock through the Food Corporation of India. The government uses this buffer stock for the less fortunate members of society or in the event of any catastrophe.

(b) Issue price – To provide food grains to the poorer sections of society and to deficit areas at a price below market rate, food is maintained in stockpiles in the form of buffer stock. The Issue Price is another name for this cost.

(d) Fair price shops – Food grains, sugar, and kerosene for cooking are kept in stock at ration shops, sometimes referred to as Fair Price Shops. People purchase these things from merchants at a discount from the going rate. Every month, a certain number of these things can be purchased from the neighbourhood ration shop by every family with a ration card.

Q. What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?

Answer – Ration shops, also known as Fair Price Shops, are supposed to provide essential food items such as grains, sugar, and kerosene at a subsidized price to low-income individuals. However, there are several issues with the way these shops operate. Poor people receive food grains of inferior quality, and ration shop dealers engage in fraudulent activities by not providing the entire quantity that people deserve. Additionally, some ration shops do not open regularly, causing inconvenience to the poor. Moreover, the ration shopkeepers update incorrect information in the name of poor individuals, which further exacerbates the problem.

Q. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.

Answer – In India, particularly in the south and west, cooperatives are essential to guaranteeing food security. In Tamil Nadu, cooperatives run 94% of the fair-price shops, which provide goods at reduced prices to the underprivileged. Mother Dairy and Amul are cooperatives that provide milk and vegetables at restricted rates established by the government. The Maharashtra-based Academy of Development Science (ADS) organises training and capacity-building initiatives on food security for NGOs in addition to establishing grain banks. Cooperatives have a tremendous impact on the cause of food security in India since they actively participate in the distribution of food and related goods.

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