The Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 NCERT Solutions offer precise and useful answers. This chapter is crucial because it establishes the framework for upcoming lessons. The detailed explanations and comprehensive coverage of the answers enable pupils to improve their writing abilities. The chapter’s NCERT fundamental ideas will be better understood by students if they practise these solutions.
Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 NCERT Solutions
Q. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.
A person is deemed poor if their income or consumption is below a predetermined “minimum level” required to meet essential needs. The poverty line refers to this threshold. The price of physical goods like food, clothing, footwear, fuel, light, education, etc. is multiplied in rupees to determine the poverty line in India. The figures used to calculate the poverty line change from year to year. Also, because work, lifestyle, and cost of living differ between rural and urban places, the poverty level for each is different.
Q. Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
The current approach to estimating poverty is inadequate as it only takes into account economic status and focuses on a minimum subsistence level instead of a reasonable standard of living. Poverty is now a more complex issue that extends beyond economic status, with factors such as education, housing, health, job security, and dignity also playing important roles. To address poverty effectively, a more comprehensive approach that considers all of these factors is needed. Therefore, the current methodology for poverty estimation needs to be revised to ensure that all aspects of poverty are taken into account and addressed to completely eradicate poverty from the country.
Q. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Even though the number of poor people in the nation has decreased, the Economic Survey for 2017–18 revealed that this figure is still relatively high. Together, rural and urban areas had a 45% poverty rate in 1993–1994; by 2011–12, that number has dropped to 22%. The number of poor people living in the nation has not significantly decreased, though, and this is still a cause for concern. In both rural and urban areas, there were 404 million impoverished people in 1993–1994; in 2011–12, there were 270 million. The poll makes it quite evident that the relevant authorities must take some substantial action in order to rid India of poverty.
Q. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
There are several causes of poverty in India:
- the country’s low levels of economic development and policies discouraging industrialization and handicrafts as a result of British colonial rule.
- Even while it created job opportunities, the Green Revolution did not produce enough of them to meet the demands of an expanding population.
- Poverty is made worse by the unequal distribution of land and resources, especially in rural areas.
- The social and religious obligations of the impoverished frequently place a heavy financial load on them and cause poverty.
- India’s poverty is largely a result of income inequality.
The following are some of the most vulnerable groups to poverty in India –
- Rural population: People living in rural areas are more vulnerable to poverty due to lack of education, healthcare, and basic services.
- Women and children: Females and children in India are more vulnerable to poverty due to discrimination, limited access to education and employment opportunities, and lack of basic healthcare and nutrition.
- Dalits and Adivasis: These historically disadvantaged communities are vulnerable to poverty due to social and economic exclusion, discrimination, and lack of access to basic amenities, education, and healthcare.
- Urban poor: People living in urban areas who work in low-paying informal jobs are vulnerable to poverty due to lack of job security, social protection, and inadequate access to basic services like water and sanitation.
- Persons with disabilities: People with disabilities are more vulnerable to poverty due to marginalization, discrimination, and lack of access to education, employment, and social services.
Q. Give an account of interstate disparities of poverty in India.
In India, there are major regional differences in poverty that have persisted for many years. Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand are among the states with greater rates of poverty than Maharashtra, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. Although the causes of these gaps are complicated, sociopolitical considerations, inadequate infrastructure, unequal economic development, and limited access to healthcare and education all play a part.
Q. Describe global poverty trends.
Poverty levels vary between Indian states, with Orissa, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh having the highest poverty rates and Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh having the lowest. However, globally, poverty has decreased significantly in China and Southeast Asian countries due to economic growth and investment in human resources. In Latin America, poverty levels have remained stable, while in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty has increased from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001. Former socialist countries like Russia have also experienced poverty, which was previously nonexistent.
Q. Describe the current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
The Indian government has set the removal of poverty as one of its primary goals, which is being pursued through two main strategies: promoting economic growth and implementing targeted anti-poverty programs. The government has also been raising awareness about the importance of education, which has led to an increase in literacy rates. To achieve its objective, the government has introduced several schemes, including the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana, and Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana, aimed at eradicating poverty across the country.
Q. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What do you understand by human poverty?
Human poverty refers to the idea that poverty extends beyond a person’s financial situation and affects a variety of other areas, such as inequality, prejudice, and lack of access to healthcare and education. Although ending poverty shouldn’t be the main objective of the government, it must be the goal.
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?
The most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of impoverished households are often the elderly, women, and young girls. These individuals experience the most severe hardships and have the least access to essential resources.
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
The National Rural Employment Act 2005 aims to ensure livelihood security in rural areas by providing 100 days of wage employment to every household. It also focuses on promoting sustainable development to tackle issues like drought, deforestation, and soil erosion. Additionally, the Act mandates that one-third of the employment opportunities created under this scheme must be reserved for women.