Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Questions and Answers – Nomads are people who do not have a permanent residence and move from one area to another in order to make a living. Pastoral nomads are a type of nomad who raise and care for livestock, such as cattle, and move to different areas in search of pastures for their animals. The Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Questions and Answers provide answers to the questions in the textbook that can help students understand and practice the concepts of this chapter.
Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Questions and Answers
Q.1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Answer – Nomadic tribes move from one location to another in order to find resources, such as food and water, for themselves and their animals. This movement helps to maintain the ecological balance of the area by allowing the land to rest and recover, and can also prevent overgrazing. The manure from the animals can also help to fertilize the soil, which can support future growth and support the nomadic way of life.
There are several advantages to the environment of the continuous movement of nomadic tribes:
- Regrowth and recovery: Nomadic communities move their animals to new pastures on a regular basis, allowing the land to rest and recover from the impact of grazing. This can help to maintain the health and productivity of the land over time.
- Prevention of overgrazing: By moving their animals to new pastures before the grass has been completely depleted, nomadic communities can help to prevent overgrazing and maintain the productivity of the land.
- Soil fertilization: The manure produced by the animals can help to fertilize the soil, supporting future growth and improving the overall health of the ecosystem.
- Ecological balance: Nomadic communities may have a deep understanding of and respect for the natural environment, and may practice resource management techniques that can help to preserve the ecological balance of the area.
Q.2 Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists.
a. Wasteland Rules
b. Forest Acts
c. Criminal Tribes Act
d. Grazing Tax
a. Wasteland Rules – The colonial government in India enacted Waste Land Rules in the mid-19th century in order to encourage the cultivation of uncultivated lands, which were considered unproductive because they did not generate revenue or agricultural produce. These lands were often used by pastoralist communities for grazing, but were given to individuals with concessions to encourage settlement and cultivation. This expansion of cultivation led to a decline in the number of pastures available for pastoralist communities, which posed a problem for their traditional way of life.
b. Forest Acts – The colonial government in India enacted various forest acts in order to produce commercially viable timber. Some areas of forest were designated as “reserved” and were off-limits to pastoralists, while other areas classified as “protected” had some customary grazing rights, but with severe restrictions on movement. The colonial authorities believed that grazing damaged the forests and imposed these restrictions in order to control the use of the forests by pastoralist communities. As a result, the lives of pastoralists were heavily regulated by the permits issued by the forest department.
c. Criminal Tribes Act – The British authorities in India viewed nomadic and pastoralist communities with suspicion and contempt, and sought to bring them under their control. To do this, they passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, which classified certain communities of craftsmen, traders, and pastoralists as criminals by nature. These communities were forced to settle in one location and were not allowed to move without a permit, and were closely monitored by the village police. This Act was intended to assert control over these groups, who were seen as difficult to track and identify due to their nomadic lifestyle.
d. Grazing Tax – To increase its revenue, the colonial government in India imposed a tax on land, salt, canal water, and animals. Pastoralist communities were required to pay a tax on every animal they took to graze in the pastures, known as the Grazing Tax. This tax was collected by contractors who had won the right to do so through auctions. In order to maximize their profits, these contractors often tried to extract as much tax as possible from pastoralists. As a result, pastoralists were often forced to reduce the number of animals they took to graze in order to pay less tax.
Q.3 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Answer – In the late 19th century, European imperial powers divided the African continent into colonies with little regard for local communities. This division resulted in the Maasai people in Maasailand being split between British Kenya and German Tanzania, with the best grazing lands being reserved for white settlers. The Maasai were pushed into a small area in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves, where pastoralists were not allowed to enter, hunt animals, or graze their herds.
Q.4 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Answer – Both India and East Africa were subjected to exploitation by European colonial powers, and experienced similar impacts on their pastoralist communities. In both regions, forest laws were implemented that restricted the access of pastoralists to certain areas, leading to the loss of grazing lands and disruption of traditional ways of life. Borders were also closed, resulting in the loss of access to land and resources for pastoralist communities. In India, the division of the country forced Raika herders to find new pastures in Haryana, while in Africa, the Maasai people lost access to their traditional lands due to the division of Maasailand into British Kenya and German Tanganyika.