Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution NCERT Solutions – The French Revolution was a period of significant political and social change in France that occurred in the late 18th century. It is known for its ideals of equality, fraternity, and liberty, which inspired other liberal and socialist movements around the world and contributed to the spread of democratic ideals. The revolution led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic republic in France.
However, the changes brought about by the revolution were not universally supported, and various factions, such as liberals, radicals, and conservatives, emerged in response to the events of the time. Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution NCERT Solutions are designed to help students understand the syllabus and guidelines of the latest CBSE exams, including the French Revolution and its impact on European society.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution NCERT Solutions
In pre-1905 Russia, the urban working class was a diverse and divided group. Many workers had ties to the countryside and had migrated to the cities temporarily for work. Others had settled permanently in the cities, but retained strong connections to their rural origins. Within the urban working class, there were also divisions based on skill level and type of work. Some workers were skilled craftsmen or tradespeople, while others were unskilled laborers.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the Russian industrial sector experienced rapid growth and development. This growth was supported by the expansion of the railway network, an increase in foreign investment, and significant increases in the production of coal, iron, and steel. As a result, many factories were established in Russia during this time, and most of these factories were owned by private industrialists. The government played a supervisory role in regulating these industries, but they were largely operated as private enterprises.
Russia before 1905 was an autocracy, meaning that it was ruled by an absolute monarch, the Tsar, who held unchecked power and was not accountable to any other authority, such as a parliament. This system of government was in contrast to the more democratic systems found in many other European countries, where the monarch’s power was limited by the rule of law and the consent of the people, as represented by a parliament or other legislative body.
During this time, there were liberal reformers in Russia who believed in democracy and sought to end the autocratic system of government. These individuals, known as “liberals,” campaigned for political change and greater accountability of the Tsar and his government to the people.
Socialist Revolutionary Party Struggled for Peasants’ Rights
In 1905, a violent incident known as “Bloody Sunday” occurred in Russia. On this day, a group of workers marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II. However, the demonstration turned violent when troops opened fire on the protesters, killing around 300 people. This event, known as Bloody Sunday, is considered to be the start of the 1905 Revolution, a series of political and social protests that took place in Russia that year. The 1905 Revolution ultimately led to the creation of the Duma, Russia’s first parliament, and marked a significant turning point in Russian history.
2. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?
Answer – Before 1917, the working population in Russia differed from other countries in Europe in several ways. One significant difference was the prevalence of peasant farmers in Russia, who made up a large portion of the working population. In contrast, in other European countries, the working population was primarily composed of urban factory workers. Additionally, the working conditions and labor rights in Russia were generally poorer than in other European countries.
Workers in Russia often worked long hours for low pay and had few protections or benefits. There were also significant social and economic disparities between different segments of the Russian working population, with some groups, such as peasants and industrial workers, facing much harsher conditions than others, such as the aristocracy and the middle class.
3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Answer – There were several factors that contributed to the collapse of the Tsarist autocracy in 1917. One major factor was –
- Strain of World War I: The war put a great deal of pressure on the Russian economy and military, and led to widespread food shortages and other domestic problems.
- Ineffectiveness of the Tsarist government: The government was unable to effectively address the challenges facing the country, and was widely seen as being out of touch with the needs and concerns of the Russian people.
- Discontent and disillusionment among the Russian people: The combination of economic and social problems, along with the perceived ineffectiveness of the Tsarist government, contributed to widespread discontent among the Russian people.
- The Russian Revolution of 1917: The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, played a crucial role in overthrowing the Tsarist government and bringing about the collapse of the autocracy.
4. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.
The February Revolution, also known as the Russian Revolution of 1917, was a series of political and social events that took place in Russia in February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar). The main events and effects of the February Revolution were as follows:
- Main events: The February Revolution began with a series of strikes and protests in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), sparked by food shortages and other economic and social problems. The protests quickly spread and turned into a general strike, which effectively shut down the city. The Tsarist government responded with violence, but the protesters continued to resist, leading to the collapse of the government and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.
- Involved parties: The February Revolution was primarily led by industrial workers, who were joined by other segments of society, including soldiers, peasants, and the middle class. The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, played a key role in organizing and leading the revolution.
- Impact on Soviet history: The February Revolution marked a significant turning point in Russian history, as it led to the collapse of the Tsarist autocracy and the creation of a provisional government. The revolution also set the stage for the October Revolution later that year, which resulted in the establishment of the Soviet Union.
The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was a series of political and military events that took place in Russia in October 1917 (November in the Gregorian calendar). The main events and effects of the October Revolution were as follows:
- Main events: The October Revolution began with a series of uprisings and military actions led by the Bolshevik Party. The party seized control of key government buildings and communications centers, and declared the overthrow of the provisional government.
- Involved parties: The October Revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party, which was led by Vladimir Lenin. The party was supported by a diverse group of people, including industrial workers, peasants, soldiers, and intellectuals.
- Impact on Soviet history: The October Revolution marked the beginning of the Soviet Union and the establishment of a communist government in Russia. The revolution also had significant global implications, as it inspired other communist movements around the world. The Soviet Union would go on to become a major global power and influence world events for much of the 20th century.
5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
The Bolshevik Party, which seized power in the October Revolution of 1917, implemented a number of significant changes in the years immediately following the revolution. Some of the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks included:
- Land reform: The Bolsheviks implemented a policy of land expropriation, which involved the seizure of land from the aristocracy and the distribution of land to peasants. This policy was intended to address long-standing grievances among the peasant population and to build support for the new government.
- Nationalization of industry: The Bolsheviks nationalized key industries, including the banks, heavy industry, and transportation, in order to bring them under state control. This policy was intended to help the government plan and direct the economy and to eliminate the power of the capitalists.
- Workers’ control: The Bolsheviks established workers’ councils, known as “soviets,” to give workers a greater say in the running of factories and other workplaces. This policy was intended to give workers a greater sense of control over their own lives and to build support for the new government.
- War and peace: The Bolsheviks made the decision to withdraw Russia from World War I and to negotiate a peace treaty with the Central Powers. This decision was unpopular with many Russians, but the Bolsheviks argued that it was necessary in order to focus on the domestic challenges facing the country.
- Political and social reforms: The Bolsheviks implemented a number of political and social reforms, including the establishment of universal suffrage, the legalization of abortion and divorce, and the establishment of a system of free education and health care. These reforms were intended to address long-standing social and political issues and to build support for the new government.
6. Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(ii) The Duma
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.
(iv) The Liberals.
(v) Stalins collectivization programme.
(i) Kulaks – Kulaks were a class of wealthy peasants in Russia who owned land and hired labor to work on their farms. They emerged as a distinct social group in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and were seen as a major obstacle to the implementation of land reform policies in Russia.
(ii) The Duma – The Duma is the name of the parliament of the Russian Federation. It is a representative body that is elected by the Russian people and is responsible for making laws and representing the interests of the Russian people. The Duma has two chambers: the State Duma, which is the lower chamber, and the Federation Council, which is the upper chamber.
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930 – During the period from 1900 to 1930, women increasingly entered the workforce in many parts of the world, including in Russia. This trend was driven by a number of factors, including the expansion of the industrial sector, the growing demand for labor, and the changing social and economic roles of women. where they often faced poor working conditions and low pay.
(iv) The Liberals – The term “liberals” refers to a political ideology that advocates for individual liberty, limited government, and free market economic policies. In the context of Russian politics, the term “liberals” has often been used to refer to political parties or movements that espouse these principles. Liberal political parties and movements sought to bring about political and social reforms, such as the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the expansion of civil liberties.
(v) Stalins collectivization programme – Joseph Stalin’s collectivization program was a policy implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It involved the forced consolidation of small farms into large collectives, known as kolkhozes, and the collectivization of livestock. The goal of the collectivization program was to increase agricultural productivity and to eliminate the class of wealthy peasants known as kulaks.
Some Extra Questions and Answers –
1. What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?
Answer – The Russian Revolution was caused by a combination of factors, including economic, political, and social issues. The Russian economy was in a state of decline, and the country was embroiled in World War I, which further exacerbated the situation. There was also widespread discontent among the Russian people, who were suffering from poverty, inequality, and political repression under the Tsarist regime.
2. Who led the Russian Revolution?
Answer – The Russian Revolution was led by a group of revolutionary socialists known as the Bolsheviks, who were led by Vladimir Lenin.
3. What was the outcome of the Russian Revolution?
Answer – The Russian Revolution led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the establishment of the Soviet Union, a socialist state governed by the Communist Party. The revolution also had significant global impacts, as it inspired other socialist movements around the world.
4. What were the consequences of the Russian Revolution?
Answer – The consequences of the Russian Revolution were both positive and negative. On the one hand, the revolution brought about significant social and political reforms, such as the establishment of universal suffrage and the abolition of serfdom. On the other hand, the revolution also led to widespread civil war, political repression, and economic instability in Russia. The Soviet Union, which emerged from the revolution, became a major global superpower, but it was also criticized for its human rights abuses and its totalitarian government.
5. What was the role of the Russian Revolution in the development of communism?
Answer – The Russian Revolution was a key event in the development of communism, as it established the Soviet Union as the world’s first communist state. The revolution and the subsequent Soviet government also played a significant role in spreading the ideas of communism around the world, particularly in the developing world.
Answer – The Russian Revolution had a significant influence on other socialist movements around the world, as it provided a model for how a socialist revolution could be achieved and how a socialist state could be established. Many socialist and communist parties around the world looked to the Soviet Union as a model and inspiration for their own revolutions and movements.
7. What was the impact of the Russian Revolution on the course of World War I?
Answer – The Russian Revolution had a major impact on the course of World War I. The overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the establishment of the Soviet Union led to the withdrawal of Russia from the war, which was a significant blow to the Allied powers. The revolution also had a broader impact on the war, as it inspired other socialist and anti-war movements around the world.
8. How did the Russian Revolution shape the global political landscape in the 20th century?
Answer – The Russian Revolution had a profound impact on the global political landscape in the 20th century. It led to the establishment of the Soviet Union as a major global superpower and the spread of communism around the world. The Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States was a defining feature of international relations in the 20th century, and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had significant implications for the global balance of power.
9. What was the February Revolution?
Answer – The February Revolution, also known as the Russian Revolution of 1917, was a series of protests and uprisings in Russia that began on February 23 (March 8 in the Gregorian calendar) and eventually led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the establishment of a provisional government. The revolution was sparked by a combination of economic, political, and social factors, including food shortages, inflation, and World War I.
10. What were the consequences of the February Revolution?
Answer – The February Revolution had significant consequences for Russia and the world. It led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime, which had ruled Russia for centuries, and the establishment of a provisional government. The revolution also had significant global impacts, as it inspired other socialist movements around the world and contributed to the collapse of the empires of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. The February Revolution was followed by the October Revolution later in 1917, which established the Soviet Union and marked the beginning of the communist era in Russia.
11. What was the cause of the Civil War?
Answer – The Civil War was caused by a number of factors, including differences between the Northern and Southern states over issues such as slavery, states’ rights, and economic policies. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, who was opposed to the expansion of slavery, was a major factor in the outbreak of the war.
12. What were the consequences of the Civil War?
Answer – The Civil War had significant consequences for the United States. It resulted in the deaths of over 600,000 soldiers and civilians, making it one of the deadliest wars in American history. The war also had significant social and political impacts, as it resulted in the abolition of slavery and the end of the Confederate States of America. The Civil War had a lasting impact on the United States and continues to shape the country’s political and social landscape today.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Some Points
Here are some short notes on socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:
- Socialism is a political and economic ideology that advocates for the public ownership and control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange, with the goal of promoting equality and addressing social and economic issues.
- Some European countries that have had socialist governments in the past or currently have socialist parties in power include Sweden, France, Spain, Portugal, and Greece.
- The impact of socialism on the economies of European countries has varied. Some countries that have implemented socialist policies, such as Sweden, have experienced strong economic growth and high levels of social welfare. However, other countries that have pursued more radical socialist policies, such as the former Soviet Union, have struggled economically.
- Critics of socialism argue that it can lead to inefficient and stagnant economies, as the lack of competition and incentives for innovation can stifle productivity. They also argue that socialism can lead to a lack of individual freedom and the suppression of political opposition.
- Socialism is not as popular in Europe as it was during the 20th century, but it still has significant support in some countries. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of socialist and left-wing parties in Europe, such as the Labour Party in the UK and Syriza in Greece.
- The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social upheaval in Russia in 1917 that eventually led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the creation of the Soviet Union. It was led by a group of revolutionary socialists known as the Bolsheviks, who were led by Vladimir Lenin.
- The Russian Revolution led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the establishment of the Soviet Union, a socialist state governed by the Communist Party. The revolution also had significant global impacts, as it inspired other socialist movements around the world.