Data Entry and Keyboarding Skills Class 9 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Data Entry and Keyboarding Skills Class 9 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Information Technology (402) class 9.

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Data Entry and Keyboarding Skills Class 9 Notes

This unit will cover a variety of key types, typing ergonomics, finger placement on the keyboard in accordance with the touch typing method, and the usage of typing software to learn keyboarding skills.

Keyboarding Skills

The most popular text-based input method is the keyboard. Typically, a keyboard has more than 100 keys. An individual symbol is assigned to each key on a keyboard. It enables the computer to accept alphabets, numbers, and symbols. The touch method of typing is a way to type without looking at the keys to locate them. Through muscle memory the touch typist is aware of where each key is on the keyboard. The eight fingers are normally arranged in a horizontal row down the middle of the keyboard during touch typing (the home row).

Types of keys

A computer keyboard contains the following types of keys –

Alphanumeric keys – All of the alphabet (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) on the keyboard.

Punctuation keys – All of the keys associated with punctuation, such as the comma (,), period (.), semicolon (;), brackets ([]), and parenthesis ({ }) and so on. Also, all of the mathematical operators such as the plus sign (+), minus sign (-), and equal sign (=).

Alt key – Short for Alternate, this key is like a second control key.

Arrow keys – There are four arrow keys to move the cursor (or insertion point) up (↑), down (↓), right (→), or left (←). Arrow keys can be used in conjunction with the

Shift or Alt keys – To move the cursor in more than one position at a time.

Backspace key – Deletes the character just to the left of the cursor (or insertion point) and moves the cursor to that position.

Caps Lock key – It is a toggle key, which when activated, causes all alphabetic characters to be uppercase.

Ctrl key – The control key is used in conjunction with other keys to produce control characters. The meaning of each control character depends on which program is running.

Delete key – The Del key deletes the character at the current cursor position, or the selected object, but does not move the cursor. For graphics-based applications, the delete key deletes the character to the right of the insertion point.

Enter key or Return key – It is used to enter commands or to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line.

Esc key – The Escape key is used to send special codes to devices and to exit (or escape) from programs and tasks.

Function keys – Special keys labelled F1 to F12. These keys have different meaning depending on which program is running.

Numeric keypad

This keypad is just like a basic calculator. Typically, it is situated on the right side of the computer keyboard. It has the digits 0 through 9, as well as the symbols for addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/), a decimal point (.), Num Lock, and Enter.

A numeric keypad may function in dual mode as well. In one mode, it displays numbers, while in the other, it has a variety of keys, including arrow and page up and down keys. The two modes can be switched between using NumLock.

Home keys

Alphabets ASDF are home keys for the left hand and; (semi-colon) LKJ for the right hand.

Guide keys

The keys “F” and “J” on a keyboard are referred to as left and right hand guide keys, respectively. Both have a tiny raised tactile mark that the touch typist can use to position their fingertips accurately on the home keys.

Typing and deleting text

For typing text in a document you should

click on the letters on the keyboard.

For deleting text in a document you should

use the backspace key or the delete key. The backspace key will remove text from behind (to the left of) your cursor position.

For typing numbers in a document you should

use the numbers lock or the numbers on the second row of keys on the keyboard.

Typing capital letters

To type capital letters, switch ON the Caps Lock by pressing the key before typing.

Typing symbols

Press and hold the key and then press the key with the required symbol. There are two Shift keys on the keyboard.

Typing sentences

To get space between typed words, press the space bar once and then type the next word.

Creating new lines and spaces between paragraphs

The Enter or return key is used to create new lines and spaces between paragraphs.

Pointing devices


The three main components of a mouse are its buttons, handling area, and rolling object. The mouse is set up by default to work with the right hand. People who are left-handed can adjust the settings as necessary.

Mouse operations

While each mouse uses a different mechanical mechanism, they all complete the same task. To detect mouse motion, some of them employ a tracking ball at the bottom, while others use a certain sort of light beam.

Working properties of Mouse
  • Click or left click – It is used to select an item. Press down once on the left button with your index finger.
  • Double click – It is used to start a program or open a file or trigger an action.
  • Right click – It is used to display a set of commands and available options.
  • Drag and drop – It enables the selection and relocation of an object from one place to another. Place the mouse pointer over an object, then drag it by holding down the mouse’s left side.
  • Scroll – Use the scroll wheel on the mouse to move the page on the screen up or down.
  • Blocking – Another method of selecting text is blocking. It is applied to text that has to be formatted or altered. Hold down the left button while clicking at the start of the phrase or sentence to highlight it in black as you drag the text. Release the left button after the text or sentence has finished.

Typing ergonomics

The logistical support for efficient and effective typing is provided by typing ergonomics. To achieve and maintain accuracy and speed, they are crucial. Some of these contributing factors are listed below.

Sitting posture

Sit upright and slightly bend your neck forward while using the keyboard. Examine your seating posture and comfort. Touch the lowest part of the chair’s backrest with the lower part of your back. Put both feet on the ground.

Position of hands

Put your hands down and your forearms level with the keyboard. Straighten your wrists and let your elbows hang freely. Avoid touching your elbows to your body and staying too far away. Bend with a 90-degree angle about it.

Monitor placement

When using a monitor, avoid bending your neck and keep the screen’s upper border at eye level. The size of the screen affects how far away it is from the user. Keep a distance of roughly 60-65 cm for a 17-inch screen.

Mouse and keyboard placement

Maintaining a 20 cm gap between the keyboard and mouse will aid in the keyboard’s fluid and seamless operation. The users can work more easily if their elbows, keyboard, and mouse are all the same height.

Chair and table placement

Set the computer table and chair at the ideal height. The computer user’s chair needs to support his or her lower back.

Placement of matter to be typed

Put the text to be typed on the sloping surface of a copy holder, preferably to the left or right of the keyboard.

Positioning of fingers on the keyboard

Allocation of keys to fingers

The keyboard learning process starts from the second row (Home Row) followed by the Third Row (Upper Row), First Row (Bottom Row) and the Fourth Row (Number Row).

Allocation of keys to fingers on the second row (home row)

Place four fingers of each hand on Home Keys . The remaining two keys ‘g’ and ‘h’ on the second row are operated by the forefingers (Index Finger) of left and right hand, respectively.

Allocation of keys to fingers on the third row (upper row)

Learning the key-reaches from the Home Row to the row above it is the next phase. The reaches from “a” to “q” by the left hand little finger and from “;” to “p” by the right hand little finger serve as the foundation for learning. The third fingers (sometimes known as the “Ring fingers”) are then placed on top of the adjacent “w” and “o” keys, and so on.

Allocation of keys to fingers on the first row (bottom row)

After learning how to operate keys on Home Row and Third Row, the next step is to learn how to operate keys
on the First Row. Keys Z, X, C, V, B, N, M, Comma, Full Stop and ‘/’ sign are located on this row

Allocation of keys to fingers on the Fourth Row (Number Row)

In this row, type 1, 2, 3 with little, ring and middle 9fingers of the left hand, respectively, and 4 and 5 with
the index finger (forefinger). Similarly type 0, 9, 8 with little, ring and middle fingers of right hand, respectively,
7 and 6 with index finger (forefingers).

Using numeric keypad

Efficient and effective use of numeric keypad is important in numeric data entry. The numeric keypad has four
columns and five rows. The row which has 4, 5, 6 and + is called Home Row. This is the row which is initially practiced by a touch typist.

Successful keyboarding tips

The following points may be kept in mind for successful keyboarding techniques.

  • Press the keys with feather touch and do not put undue pressure.
  • Rest your fingers on Home row while typing.
  • Allow your fingers to fall naturally on the keys so that each rests on top of the next key along the
    same horizontal row.
  • While typing, release the key immediately as soon as you press it. Holding the key for long time, will
    repeatedly type the same character.
  • Do not look at the keyboard while practicing.
  • Press the keys with equal intervals of time in rhythm.
  • Press the keys only with the fingers allotted for them.
  • While pressing a key, say slowly pronounce the character on the key.
  • Do not take any mental stress while typing.
  • Secure typing ergonomics.
  • Maintain patience if committed mistake at initial stage.
  • Maintain a balance between speed and accuracy, as both are equally important. Do not sacrifice
    accuracy for speed.
  • To gain mastery of computer keyboard, undertake repeated practice of typewriting words, sentences, passages and figures without looking at the keyboard.

Using typing software

There is a wide variety of free software available that has been specifically designed to teach typing quickly and effectively.

Introduction to Rapid Typing Tutor

Rapid Typing Tutor is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) designed to learn typing skills on the computer.

Touch typing rules

  1. The F, D, S, A, and J, K, L, ; keys (on a QWERTY keyboard) represent the base position. Keyboards usually have small protrusions on the F and J keys. They help your fingers locate the base position
  2. Colour coding shows which finger should press each key (see the picture above). The left index finger is reserved for all the red keys. The right index finger is reserved for green keys, and so forth. Use the thumb of whichever hand is more convenient for you to press the Space key.
  3. The base position on the numeric pad is the number 5 key for the middle finger, 4 for the index finger, and 6 for the ring finger. The numeric pad simplifies and speeds up numerical data input.
  4. Uppercase letters and symbols appearing on keys in the numbers row are typed by one hand with the little finger of the other hand holding down the SHIFT key.
  5. Do not look at the keyboard. Try to locate the right key with your fingers.

The colour indication is as follows:
• Green letters denote right inputs.
• Yellow letters stand for right inputs exceeding the acceptable timeframe.
• Red letters denote wrong inputs within the acceptable timeframe.
• Orange letters indicate wrong inputs that also exceed the acceptable timeframe (it’s the worst result).

Working with lesson editor

Lesson Editor window is composed of the following controls –

  • Taskbar which allows to select the keyboard layout and level of the lesson to edit.
  • Toolbar which includes Basic_lesson1 or lesson 2…., for inserting text.
  • Navigation Tree which shows the existing courses and lesson hierarchy.
  • Text Panel, an area where you can edit the text of the lesson currently selected in the Navigation Tree.
  • Lesson Metrics which displays the number and percentage of words, characters, spaces and specific characters in the lesson.
  • Keyboard, which is the virtual keyboard that highlights the characters used in the currently selected lesson. You can customise its appearance in the ‘Lesson’ section.

Calculating the typing speed

The typing speed can be measured with different accuracies, such as

  • How many words are typed for a certain time period (the least accurate)?
  • How many characters are typed for a certain time period?
  • How many keystrokes are made for a certain time period (the most accurate)?

Also there are

  • Simple speed (Gross speed)
  • Net speed (takes into account the errors)

The following table lists the detailed descriptions of typing speed types.

WPMthe number of words typed in
a one minute period of time
WPM = ( Words without errors + Words with
errors ) / Time spent in minutes
Net WPMthe WPM without words with
Net WPM = WPM – ( Words with errors / Time
spent in minutes )
CPMthe number of characters
typed in a one minute period
of time
CPM = ( Characters without errors + Characters
with errors ) / Time spent in minutes
Net CPMthe CPM without characters
with errors
Net CPM = CPM – ( Characters with errors /
Time spent in minutes )
KPMthe number of keystrokes in a
one minute period of time
KPM=(Keystrokes without errors + Keystrokes
with errors ) / Time spent in minutes
Net KPMthe KPM without keystrokes
with errors
Net KPM = KPM – ( Keystrokes with errors /
Time spent in minutes )

A student typed 240 characters per 2 min with errors in 20 characters.
Simple speed = 240 characters / 2 min = 120 cpm
Net speed = 120 cpm – ( 20 errors / 2 min ) = 100 net cpm

Typing accuracy

Typing accuracy is defined as the percentage of correct entries out of the total entries typed. The following table lists the different formulas for the typing accuracy calculation.

Accuracy in the words, percentAccuracy = ( 100% – Words with errors * 100%) /
Total number of words
Accuracy in the characters, percentAccuracy = ( 100% – Characters with errors * 100%)
/ Total number of characters
Accuracy in the keystrokes, percentAccuracy = ( 100% – Incorrect keystrokes * 100%) /
Total number of words

Typing rhythm

Errors in the words, percentErrors % = Words with errors * 100% / Total number of
Errors in the characters, percentErrors % = Errors = Characters with errors * 100% / Total
number of characters
Errors in the keystrokes, percentErrors % = Incorrect keystrokes * 100% / Total number of

following table shows the different formula for the Slowdown (percentage slowdowns) calculation –

Slowdown in the words, percentSlowdown % = Words with delay * 100% / Total number of words
Slowdown in the characters, percentSlowdown % = Characters with delay * 100% / Total number of characters
Slowdown % in the keystrokes, percentSlowdown % = Keystroke delay * 100% / Total number of keystrokes

Overall rating calculation

Overall rating (%) = ( Net speed / Course goal: Speed)
*100% where:
• Net speed is Net WPM, Net CPM or Net KPM, the value depends on the current options
• Course goal: Speed is customised in the options for each course

Good typing speed

The fastest typing speed on an alphanumeric keyboard, 216 words in one minute, was achieved by Stella Pajunas in 1946.

As of 2005, writer Barbara Blackburn was the fastest alphanumerical English language typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she maintained 150 wpm for 50 minutes, and 170 wpm for shorter periods. Her top speed was 212 wpm.

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