Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes (CBSE Skill Education)- Natural vegetation refers to the plants that grow in a particular region without the influence of human activity. It includes all types of plants, from trees and shrubs to grasses and herbs.

Wildlife refers to all non-domesticated animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and insects.

Natural vegetation and wildlife are closely connected, as plants provide food and habitat for animals and animals help to disperse seeds and pollinate plants. The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period. The species of animals are referred to as fauna.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes

Factors affecting Flora and Fauna –

  1. Land: The physical characteristics of the land, such as its altitude, slope, and geology, can affect the types of plants and animals that are able to thrive there.
  2. Soil: The type and quality of soil can also influence which plants and animals can survive in an area. For example, some plants require well-draining soil, while others prefer moist, nutrient-rich soil.
  3. Temperature: The temperature of an area can also impact its flora and fauna. For example, some species are adapted to thrive in colder climates, while others are more suited to warmer regions.
  4. Sunlight: The amount and intensity of sunlight an area receives can affect the types of plants that can grow there. For example, some plants require full sun, while others prefer partial shade.
  5. Precipitation: The amount and type of precipitation an area receives can also influence its flora and fauna. For example, some plants and animals are adapted to dry, arid conditions, while others require regular rainfall to survive.

Types of Vegetation

In India, the following major types of vegetation are found:

  1. Tropical Evergreen Forests
  2. Tropical Deciduous Forests
  3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
  4. Montane Forests
  5. Mangrove Forests

1) Tropical Evergreen Forests

  • Location: These forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, upper parts of Assam, and the Tamil Nadu coast.
  • Climate: These forests grow best in areas with more than 200 cm of annual rainfall and a short dry season.
  • Vegetation: The trees in these forests can reach great heights (up to 60 meters or more), and the vegetation includes trees, shrubs, and creepers, giving the forest a multilayered structure. These forests appear green all year round. Important tree species include ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, and cinchona.
  • Animal life: Common animals found in these forests include elephants, monkeys, lemurs, and deer.
  • Importance: These forests play a vital role in maintaining the local ecosystem and are an important source of resources for the people living in the region. They are also important for their carbon sequestration capabilities and their role in regulating the local climate.

2) Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Other names: These forests are also called monsoon forests.
  • Location: Tropical deciduous forests are found in central and western India, including parts of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.
  • Climate: Deciduous forests are found in areas with annual rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm.
  • Vegetation: These forests shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks during the dry summer. Teak is the most dominant species in moist deciduous forests, which are found in areas with annual rainfall between 200 cm and 100 cm. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, and mulberry are other commercially important species. In dry deciduous forests, which are found in areas with annual rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm, common tree species include teak, sal, peepal, and neem.
  • Animal life: Common animals found in deciduous forests include lions, tigers, pigs, deer, and elephants.
  • Subtypes: Deciduous forests are further divided into moist deciduous and dry deciduous forests, based on the amount of annual rainfall they receive.

3) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs

  • Location: Thorn forests are found in the north-western part of India, including the semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.
  • Climate: These forests and scrubs are found in areas with low annual rainfall and high temperatures.
  • Vegetation: These forests are characterized by thorny trees and bushes, and the trees are scattered with long roots that penetrate deep into the soil to access moisture. The stems of the plants are moist to conserve water, and the leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation. Important plant species in thorn forests include acacias, palms, euphorbias, and cacti.
  • Animal life: Common animals found in thorn forests include rats, mice, rabbits, foxes, wolves, tigers, lions, wild donkeys, horses, and camels.
  • Importance: Thorn forests provide a variety of resources for the local population, including fuelwood, medicine, and materials for construction. They also serve as important habitats for many species of plants and animals.

4) Montane Forests

  • Location: Montane forests are found in the mountains.
  • Climate: Wet temperate forests are found at altitudes between 1000 and 2000 meters. At higher altitudes, above 3600 meters, temperate forests and grasslands give way to alpine vegetation.
  • Vegetation: Alpine grasslands are found at high altitudes and are used for grazing. At even higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of the tundra vegetation.
  • Animal life: Common animals found in montane forests and grasslands include the Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, and the rare red panda. Sheep and goats are also found in these regions.
  • Importance: Montane forests and grasslands provide important habitats for a variety of plant and animal species, and they also play a role in regulating local climates and water cycles.

5) Mangrove Forests

  • Location: Mangrove forests are found along the coast of India, including in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.
  • Characteristics: Mangrove forests are characterized by trees that are adapted to living in salty, tidal environments. The roots of these trees are often submerged in water, and the trees are able to tolerate high levels of salt in the soil.
  • Vegetation: There are several species of mangrove trees found in India, including the Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes), the Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), and the Rhizophora mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata).
  • Animal life: Mangrove forests are home to a variety of plant and animal species, including the Royal Bengal Tiger, saltwater crocodiles, and a variety of fish and shellfish.
  • Importance: Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, including protecting the coast from erosion and storms, and serving as habitat for many species of plants and animals. 


India is rich in its Wildlife (fauna) –

  • Elephants: Elephants are found in the hot, wet forests of Assam, Karnataka, and Kerala.
  • Rhinoceroses: One-horned rhinoceroses are found in Assam and West Bengal.
  • Donkeys and camels: The Rann of Kachchh is the natural habitat of the wild donkey, while the Thar Desert is home to camels.
  • Lions: The natural habitat of the Indian lion is the Gir forest in Gujarat.
  • Tigers: Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal, and the Himalayan region.
  • High-altitude animals: The freezing high altitudes of Ladakh are home to yaks, shaggy horned wild oxen, Tibetan antelopes, bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and kiangs (Tibetan wild donkeys).
  • Aquatic animals: In the rivers, lakes, and coastal areas of India, turtles, crocodiles, and gharials can be found.
  • Birds: Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes, and pigeons are some of the birds that inhabit the forests and wetlands of India.

Major Threat to flora and fauna

  • Habitat destruction: One of the biggest threats to the flora and fauna of India is the destruction of their natural habitats. This can be caused by activities such as urbanization, agriculture, and resource extraction.
  • Pollution: Pollution from industries and other sources can harm plants and animals and disrupt their ecosystems.
  • Invasive species: Non-native species that are introduced to an ecosystem can sometimes outcompete native species and cause them to decline.
  • Climate change: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by climate change can have significant impacts on the flora and fauna of India.
  • Overhunting and poaching: The illegal hunting and poaching of plants and animals can also pose a major threat to their populations.

Government Initiative to Protect Flora and Fauna

  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: This act provides for the protection of wild animals and plants and establishes a network of protected areas, including national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, where hunting and other activities that could harm wildlife are prohibited.
  • National Biodiversity Act, 2002: This act aims to conserve India’s biodiversity and promote the sustainable use of its resources. It establishes a National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards to oversee the implementation of the act at the national and state levels.
  • Project Tiger: This is a conservation program launched in 1973 to protect the tiger and its habitat. It has helped to increase the tiger population in India, which had declined due to habitat loss and poaching.
  • Project Elephant: This is a similar conservation program launched in 1992 to protect elephants and their habitats.
    National Afforestation and Eco-development Board: This board was established to promote afforestation and eco-development activities across the country.
  • Forest Conservation Act, 1980: This act provides for the conservation of forests and the improvement of the environment. It regulates the diversion of forestland for non-forest purposes and requires the approval of the central government for such activities.
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change: This plan outlines the actions that India will take to address the challenges of climate change, including efforts to conserve and enhance its natural resources.

Social Science Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 History

Chapter 1: The French Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Geography

Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Drainage Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Climate Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes
Chapter 6: Population Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Political Science

Chapter 1 – What is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2 – Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3 – Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4 – Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5 – Democratic Rights Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Economics

Chapter 1: The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: People as Resource Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Food Security in India Class 9 Notes

The CBSE Social Science Class 9 page on is a useful resource for students studying Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics. The page offers notes and other study materials that can help students prepare for exams, including the CBSE and other competitive exams. It is a good idea for students to regularly visit the page and stay up to date with the latest information and resources.