Population Class 9 Notes

Population Class 9 Notes (CBSE Skill Education) Population refers to the total number of people living in a particular area or country. The size of the population can be affected by various factors such as birth rate, death rate, immigration, and emigration. Population growth can have both positive and negative impacts on a country or region. On one hand, a growing population can lead to economic development and a larger workforce, but it can also put strain on resources and infrastructure.

Population Class 9 Notes

Population Size and Distribution

According to the latest population estimates from the World Bank, as of 2021:

  1. Population size: India’s population is approximately 1.4 billion people.
  2. Population density: India has a population density of approximately 464 people per square kilometer.
  3. Urbanization: About 31% of India’s population lives in urban areas.
  4. Distribution: The population of India is distributed unevenly across the country, with the highest concentrations in the northern and central regions. The most populous states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Bihar.
  5. Growth rate: India’s population has been growing rapidly in recent decades, with an annual growth rate of about 1.3%. However, the country’s population growth rate has been slowing in recent years and is expected to continue to decline in the coming decades.

Population Growth and Processes of Population Change

The population of a country is constantly changing due to the interaction of the three processes of birth, death, and migration.

  1. Birth
  2. Death
  3. Migration

Population Growth

Population growth refers to the change in the number of people living in a particular area over a specific period of time. There are two main ways to measure population growth:

  1. Absolute numbers: This is the difference in the number of people living in an area between two specific points in time. For example, if the population of a country was 100 million in 2001 and 110 million in 2011, the population growth in absolute numbers would be 10 million.
  2. Percentage change per year: This is the percentage increase or decrease in the population of an area over a given period of time. For example, if the population of a country is growing at a rate of 2% per year, it means that in a given year, there will be an increase of two people for every 100 people in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate.

Processes of Population Change/Growth

The three main processes that influence the change of population are birth rates, death rates, and migration. Here is a summary of these processes:

  1. Birth rates: Birth rate refers to the number of live births per thousand people in a given year. In India, birth rates have historically been higher than death rates, contributing to the country’s rapid population growth.
  2. Death rates: Death rate refers to the number of deaths per thousand people in a given year. In India, death rates have declined in recent decades due to improvements in healthcare and other factors.
  3. Migration: Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another, either within a country or between countries. In India, there has been a trend of rural-urban migration, which has contributed to an increase in the percentage of the population living in cities and towns. Migration can also affect the distribution of the population within the country.

Age Composition

The age composition of a population refers to the distribution of people across different age groups in a country. The population of a nation is generally divided into three broad categories: children, working age, and elderly. Here is a summary of these categories:

  1. Children: Children are generally defined as those under the age of 15. They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education, and medical care.
  2. Working age: Working age refers to the age group of 15-59 years old. This group is considered economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population and contribute to the economic growth of the country.
  3. Elderly: The elderly are those aged 60 years and above. They may be working voluntarily, but they are generally not available for employment through recruitment. The elderly may depend on social security and other forms of support in their retirement years.

Sex Ratio

The sex ratio in India refers to the number of females per thousand males in the population. According to the 2021 Census, the sex ratio in India is 943 females per thousand males. This means that there are slightly fewer females than males in the population.

Literacy Rates

Literacy rate refers to the percentage of the population that can read and write. According to the 2021 Census, the literacy rate in India is approximately 77%. This means that about 77% of the population is able to read and write.

Occupational Structure

The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. Occupations can be classified into three main categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Here is a summary of these categories:

  1. Primary activities: Primary activities are those that involve the extraction and production of natural resources, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining, and quarrying. These activities are generally characterized by low levels of technology and are more common in rural areas.
  2. Secondary activities: Secondary activities involve the processing and manufacturing of goods. These activities include manufacturing industries, building and construction work, and other forms of processing. These activities generally require more advanced technology and are more common in urban areas.
  3. Tertiary activities: Tertiary activities involve the provision of services, such as transport, communications, commerce, administration, and other types of services. These activities generally require a high level of education and training and are more common in urban areas.


Health is an important component of population composition that affects the process of development. There have been significant improvements in public health in India in recent decades, which can be attributed to a number of factors. Here is a summary of some of these factors:

  1. Prevention of infectious diseases: Public health efforts in India have focused on preventing the spread of infectious diseases, such as through vaccination programs and the provision of clean water and sanitation.
  2. Modern medical practices: The application of modern medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of ailments has contributed to improved health outcomes in India. This includes the use of advanced diagnostic techniques and the availability of modern medications and treatments.

Adolescent Population

The adolescent population in India refers to the group of people between the ages of 10 and 19. According to the 2021 Census, the adolescent population in India is approximately 259 million, making it the largest adolescent population in the world.

National Population Policy

The National Population Policy (NPP) in India is a government policy that aims to address issues related to population growth, development, and related concerns. The NPP was first adopted in 2000 and revised in 2017.

The main goals of the NPP are to:

  1. Achieve a stable population by 2045, at a level consistent with the country’s resource availability and development goals.
  2. Address the unmet needs for family planning, including the provision of access to a range of contraceptive methods.
  3. Promote gender equality and the empowerment of women.
  4. Improve maternal and child health, including through the promotion of spacing between pregnancies.
  5. Reduce infant and maternal mortality rates.
  6. Promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.

Social Science Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 History

Chapter 1: The French Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Geography

Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Drainage Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Climate Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes
Chapter 6: Population Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Political Science

Chapter 1 – What is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2 – Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3 – Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4 – Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5 – Democratic Rights Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Economics

Chapter 1: The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: People as Resource Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Food Security in India Class 9 Notes

The CBSE Social Science Class 9 page on http://cbseskilleducation.com is a useful resource for students studying Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics. The page offers notes and other study materials that can help students prepare for exams, including the CBSE and other competitive exams. It is a good idea for students to regularly visit the page and stay up to date with the latest information and resources.