Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Social Science.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Age of Social Change

The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. Not everyone in Europe, wanted a complete transformation of society. Some were ‘conservatives’, others were ‘liberals’ or ‘radicals’.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives

Liberals – They supported a political structure that valued all religions equally. They were against dynasty rulers as well. They requested one vote per property but did not include women’s in the same.

Radicals – They wanted a country in which a majority of the people would elect the government, and some of them also favoured including women in the voting process.

Conservatives – They are not ready for changes in the system, they wanted to discard of the idea of changes. Some of the area they agreed to the upcoming changes but they wanted that at the same time the past should be respected.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Industrial Society and Social Change

New cities and industrialised areas developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution, which also came about changes in social and economic life. Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories. Work hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Coming of Socialism to Europe

By the middle of the nineteenth century, socialism had received massive recognition in Europe. Socialists opposed private property and believed that it was the root of all current societal issues. They advocated for it and wanted to modify it.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels added that the industrial society was a capitalist society which was not profitable for everyone. Marx thought that by implementing socialism, workers would be liberated from capitalism. This society would be communist, and community ownership of land and factories would be encouraged.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Support for Socialism

By the 1870s, socialist ideologies had spread throughout Europe and formed an International body – namely, the Second International organisation. In order to fight for improved living and working conditions, workers in Germany and England established associations. By 1905, socialists and labour activists founded the Labour Party and Socialist Party.

The Russian Revolution

During the 1917 October Revolution in Russia, socialists taken control. The Russian Revolution is typically used to refer to the events of October 1917 and the monarchy’s fall in February 1917.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Russian Empire in 1914

Russia was governed by Tsar Nicholas II and his empire in 1914. Besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included current-day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. It stretched to the Pacific and comprised today’s Central Asian states, as well as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The majority religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity – which had grown out of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Economy and Society

The majority of people in Russia were farmers. Industries were being established, the majority of which were industrialists’ private properties. Although the workforce was divided into sections, when they were unhappy, they came together to go on strike. In contrast to the French peasant, peasants showed no regard for the nobles. Only the Russian peasant community pooled its land and divided it among its commune in accordance with the requirements of various families.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Socialism in Russia

Before 1914, all political parties were illegal in Russia. Socialists who valued Marx’s ideas created the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1898. Some Russian socialists believed that because Russian peasants regularly divided their land, they were socialists by nature. In 1900, they established the Socialist Revolutionary Party. This group fought for the rights of peasants and requested that peasants receive land that belonged to aristocrats. Lenin believed that the peasantry was not a cohesive entity. Some were labourers while others were capitalists who employed employees; some were destitute while others were wealthy.

A Turbulent Time: The 1905 Revolution

Russia was an autocracy. Even at the start of the twentieth century, the Tsar was not subject to parliament like other European rulers. In Russia, liberals launched campaigns to change the situation.
During the 1905 revolution, they joined forces with the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries to support workers’ and peasants’ demands for a constitution.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The First World War and the Russian Empire

In 1914, war broke out between two European alliances – Germany, Austria and Turkey (the Central powers) and France, Britain and Russia (later Italy and Romania). Each country had a global empire and the war was fought outside Europe as well as in Europe. This was the First World War.

In Russia, the war was initially popular and people rallied around Tsar Nicholas II. As the war continued, though, the Tsar refused to consult the main parties in the Duma. Support wore thin. The First World War on the ‘eastern front’ differed from that on the ‘western front’. Russia’s armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917. As they retreated, the Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land.

The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government and the Tsar. Soldiers did not wish to fight such a war As a result, there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down. Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in the cities, bread and flour became scarce. By the winter of 1916, riots at bread shops were common.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The February Revolution in Petrograd

The February Revolution began on February 23, 1917. After World War I, Russia faced severe social and economic issues. Due to shortage of food, there was a large-scale protest in the streets of Petrograd. there were large-scale protests and violent battles with the police and the Russian monarch’s allies. Even the Russian military sided with the demonstrators. Thousands of people died as a result of the protest. All of these events contributed to Tsar Nicholas II’s resignation, which put an end to the Russian Empire.

  1. 1917 – Food shartages in the workers quarters.
  2. 22 February 1917 – Workers from 50 factories went on strike. Women took the lead in several factory strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day.
  3. Due to Official buildings were surrounded by workers, the government imposed a curfew.
  4. On Sunday, 25 February, the government suspended the Duma.
  5. On the 27th, the Police Headquarters were ransacked.
  6. People raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. The government tried to control the situation and called out the cavalry once again.
  7. The cavalry refrained from opening fire on the protesters. After an officer was shot at a regiment’s barracks, three other regiments mutinied and decided to support the striking workers.
  8. The very next day, a delegation went to see the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate.
  9. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
  10. Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

After February

  1. Liberals and socialists worked towards an elected government.
  2. Restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed.
  3. In industrial areas, factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories.
  4. Trade unions grew in number. Soldiers’ committees were formed in the army.
  5. Countryside, peasants and their Socialist Revolutionary leaders pressed for a redistribution of land. Land committees were formed to handle this.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Revolution of October 1917

The October Revolution was a major event that took place in Russia 1917. It was led by two men, Lenin and Trotsky, and many people joined because they believed in them. This signified the beginning of Lenin’s rule over the Bolshevik-led Soviet. The Bolshevik Party afterwards changed its name to the Russian Communist Party.

What Changed after October?

1. In November 1917, industry and banking were nationalized.
2. Land was deemed to be social property, and nobility-owned land might be seized by peasants.
3. The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)
4. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in November 1917.
5. Russia merged into a single-party system.
6. After October 1917, innovations started in the arts and architecture.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Civil War

The communist Red Army of the Bolsheviks and the non-Bolshevik White Army fought each other in the Russian Civil War. While there were some clashes in the north, most of the fighting took place in southern and eastern Russia. Additionally, the Baltic states were a threat to the Red Army since they wanted independence. In the end, the Red Army won against the White Army, creating the Soviet Union.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Making a Socialist Society

1. Banks and industry remained nationalized during the civil war.
2. Peasants were permitted to cultivate the land.
3. The introduction of a centralized planning method.
4. Officials focused on the economy’s functioning and established goals for a five-year time frame.
5. The government set all prices throughout the first two “Plans” to encourage industrial development (1927-1932 and 1933-1938).
6. Centralised planning led to economic growth.
7. An educational system was established, and plans were made to allow manufacturing employees and peasants to enroll in universities.
8. In workplaces, crèches were set up for the kids of female workers.

Stalin and Collective Farming

The availability of food had become a serious issue in Soviet Russia’s towns by 1927–1928. Despite the government setting the prices at which grain must be sold, the peasants refused to sell their grain to government buyers at these rates.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR

Like the Communist Party of Great Britain, communist parties were founded in several nations. At the Conference of the Peoples of the East, non-Russians from outside the USSR participated (1920). The Comintern was established by the Bolsheviks (an international union of pro-Bolshevik socialist parties). Socialism had a global face and international grandeur thanks to the USSR before the Second World War began. The USSR emerged into a major power as a result of the expansion of its industries, agriculture, and food production. The USSR’s status as a socialist nation had deteriorated by the turn of the 20th century.

Frequently Asked Question

Q. What is the summary of socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution?
In 1898, the Socialist Democratic Labor Party of Russia was established. It fought valiantly to grant peasants their legal claims to land that belonged to lords. It was believed that peasants, not workers, would be the driving force behind the revolution because peasants regularly divided the land among themselves, making them naturally socialist.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Q. What is Russian Revolution Class 9 notes?
The 1917 Russian Revolution is another name for the Russian Revolution. 1917 marked the end of the Tsar’s relationship with the Russian people. Corruption in the government and inefficiency were pervasive.

Q. What is socialism in Europe Class 9?
Socialists opposed private property. They each had a unique outlook on the future. Some supported cooperatives, while others insisted that governments must support them. The addition that the industrial society was a capitalist society that was not profitable for everyone was made by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes

Q. What was the socialist system in Russian Revolution Class 9?
Socialists opposed private property and believed that it was the underlying source of all social ills. They believed that although property created jobs, it benefited the owners personally rather than the people who helped to make the property profitable.

Social Science Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 History

Chapter 1: The French Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Pastoralists in the Modern World Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Geography

Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Drainage Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Climate Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 9 Notes
Chapter 6: Population Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Political Science

Chapter 1 – What is Democracy Why Democracy Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2 – Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3 – Electoral Politics Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4 – Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes
Chapter 5 – Democratic Rights Class 9 Notes

CBSE Class 9 Economics

Chapter 1: The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: People as Resource Class 9 Notes
Chapter 3: Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes
Chapter 4: Food Security in India Class 9 Notes

The CBSE Social Science Class 9 page on is a useful resource for students studying Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics. The page offers notes and other study materials that can help students prepare for exams, including the CBSE and other competitive exams. It is a good idea for students to regularly visit the page and stay up to date with the latest information and resources.
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