Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes

Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes – Poverty remains a major challenge in India, and the government has implemented various programs and measures to address it. Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes discusses the concept of poverty and how it is viewed in social sciences, as well as the trends of poverty in India and globally. It also covers the causes of poverty and the efforts taken by the government to combat it, including initiatives related to economic growth, education, and empowerment. These notes provide a comprehensive overview of the chapter, with input from subject matter experts, to help students understand and review the material effectively.

Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes


Poverty in India is a significant issue, with a large percentage of the population living in poverty. According to estimates from the World Bank, in 2020, around 21% of the population lived below the international poverty line of 156 Rs per day. The root causes of poverty in India are complex and multifaceted, and include issues such as low levels of education, lack of access to healthcare, limited access to credit and financial services, and structural inequalities.

Two Typical Cases of Poverty

Poverty is defined by a lack of basic necessities such as food, shelter, and access to clean water and sanitation facilities, as well as a lack of regular employment at a decent level. It is a major challenge in India, with many people living in poverty and facing difficulties such as lack of access to services and limited job opportunities. The government has implemented various initiatives to reduce poverty, but it remains a significant issue in the country. Independence for India will only be achieved when the poorest members of society are no longer suffering.

Poverty as seen by social scientists

Social scientists use various indicators to study poverty, including income and consumption levels as well as social indicators such as illiteracy, malnutrition, lack of access to healthcare, job opportunities, and safe drinking water and sanitation. These indicators provide a more comprehensive understanding of poverty and the factors that contribute to it.

Poverty Line

The poverty line is a measure of poverty based on income or consumption levels, which can vary by time and place.

  • In India, the poverty line is determined by the minimum level of requirements for items such as food, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, education, and medical care.
  • These requirements are multiplied by their prices in rupees to calculate the poverty line.
  • Poverty in India is based on the desired calorie requirement, with an average of 2400 calories per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per day in urban areas.
  • The poverty line for 2011-2012 was set at Rs 816 per month for rural areas and Rs 1000 for urban areas.
  • The poverty line is periodically estimated by the National Sample Survey Organisation through sample surveys.

Poverty Estimates

There has been a significant decline in poverty ratios in India, with the proportion of people living below the poverty line dropping from approximately 45% in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05 and 22% in 2011-12.

Vulnerable Groups

Vulnerability to poverty refers to the higher likelihood that certain groups or individuals will become or remain poor in the future, due to factors such as limited assets, education, employment opportunities, and health. Groups that are particularly susceptible to poverty in India include Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, as well as rural agricultural labor households and urban casual labor households. A recent study found that, with the exception of Scheduled Tribes, all of these groups experienced a decrease in poverty in the 1990s.

Inter-State Disparities

The poverty rate varies among different states in India, with Bihar and Odisha having the highest poverty ratios at 33.7% and 32.6% respectively. Urban poverty is particularly prevalent in Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh. On the other hand, states such as Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and West Bengal have seen a decline in poverty. Poverty reduction in Punjab and Haryana has been aided by high agricultural growth, while in Kerala and West Bengal, human resource development and land reform measures have played a role. Public distribution of food grains in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu has also contributed to poverty reduction in those states.

Global Poverty Scenario

According to the World Bank, as of 2020, approximately 9.2% of the global population lived in extreme poverty, defined as living on less than 156 Rs per day. However, there has been progress in reducing global poverty, with the extreme poverty rate declining from about 36% in 1990 to 9.2% in 2020.

In China and Southeast Asian countries due to rapid economic growth and investments in human resource development. In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty decreased from 51% in 2005 to 41% in 2015. In Latin America, the poverty rate fell from 10% in 2005 to 4% in 2015.

Causes of Poverty

During British rule, India had low economic development and policies that damaged traditional crafts and hindered the development of industries such as textiles. Low growth and a growing population led to low per capita income growth. While irrigation and the Green Revolution increased job opportunities in agriculture, it was not enough to provide employment for all job seekers.

There are several causes of poverty in India, including:

  1. Lack of access to education: Many poor individuals in India lack access to education, which prevents them from gaining the skills and knowledge needed to secure well-paying jobs.
  2. Limited job opportunities: In some parts of India, there is a lack of job opportunities, particularly in rural areas, which leaves many people unable to earn a sufficient income.
  3. Poor infrastructure: Inadequate infrastructure, such as poor roads and lack of access to electricity, can limit economic growth and job opportunities in certain areas, leading to poverty.
  4. Lack of access to credit: Many poor individuals in India lack access to credit, which prevents them from starting businesses or investing in their education and training.
  5. Inequality: Economic inequality, including the unequal distribution of land and other resources, can contribute to poverty in India.
  6. Limited social safety nets: India has limited social safety nets in place to support those living in poverty, which can make it difficult for people to escape poverty once they fall into it.

Anti-Poverty Measures

Anti-poverty scheme is divided into two parts.

  1. Promotion of economic growth
  2. Targeted anti-poverty programmes.

Some of the targeted anti-poverty programmes in India :

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) – The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is a government program in India that aims to provide employment to rural households in order to reduce poverty. Under this program, the government provides 100 days of guaranteed wage employment per year to every rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work. The MGNREGA aims to provide a safety net to people in rural areas who may not have access to other employment opportunities, and also to promote sustainable development by addressing issues such as drought, deforestation, and soil erosion. One-third of the jobs provided under the MGNREGA are reserved for women. 
  • Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) – The Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) was a scheme launched in 1993 in India with the aim of providing self-employment opportunities to educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns. The scheme provided financial assistance to set up small-scale businesses or to take up self-employment activities, such as agriculture and allied activities, small enterprises, etc. The assistance was provided in the form of a subsidy and a loan from a financial institution. The scheme was implemented through the Ministry of Rural Development and aimed to create employment opportunities in the rural areas and reduce urban migration. It was later merged with the Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) in 1999.
  • Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) – The Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) was a scheme launched in 1995 by the government of India. The aim of the programme was to create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns, with the goal of reducing poverty and unemployment in these areas. The programme provided financial assistance to individuals and groups for the setting up of small businesses and micro-enterprises in the agriculture and allied sectors. The REGP was implemented through banks and other financial institutions, which provided loans to eligible candidates at subsidized interest rates. The scheme was later merged with the Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) in 1999.
  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) – Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is a poverty reduction programme launched in India in 1999. The goal of the programme is to bring assisted poor families above the poverty line by organizing them into self-help groups, through a combination of bank credit and government subsidy. The programme focuses on the creation of self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns, with a particular emphasis on promoting the development of enterprises in the non-farm sector. The programme is implemented through a combination of central and state governments, with funding provided by both levels of government.

The Challenges Ahead

Poverty is still a major issue in India, but it is expected that poverty reduction will improve in the next decade or so due to factors such as increased economic growth, increased focus on universal free elementary education, decreasing population growth, and the empowerment of women.


In conclusion (CBSE Skill Education), poverty remains a significant issue in India, despite efforts to reduce it over the years. The government has implemented several schemes and initiatives to address poverty, including economic growth promotion and targeted anti-poverty programs such as the MGNREGA and PMRY. However, more progress is needed in areas such as education and empowerment of disadvantaged groups to effectively combat poverty in India.

Social Science Class 9 Notes

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Chapter 1: India – Size and Location Class 9 Notes
Chapter 2: Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes
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Chapter 4: Climate Class 9 Notes
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Chapter 3: Poverty as a Challenge Class 9 Notes
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The CBSE Social Science Class 9 page on https://cbseskilleducation.com is a useful resource for students studying Geography, History, Political Science, and Economics. The page offers notes and other study materials that can help students prepare for exams, including the CBSE and other competitive exams. It is a good idea for students to regularly visit the page and stay up to date with the latest information and resources.
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