Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 11.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes


The first Olympic Games were held as a part of a religious event in Zeus’ honour, the head of the Greek gods and goddesses. The Olympic Games or Olympics are named after Olympia, an ancient Greek town in Elis, or Mount Olympus, the tallest mountain in Greece. At Olympia, the festival and games first took place in 776 BCE.

Every four years, the games were held, and the interval between two years was referred to as an Olympiad. It was customary to declare peace and put an end to all conflicts and wars during the month that the Olympic Games were held in order to make travel for competitors and spectators easier.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes


The Ancient Olympic Games were declared over by Emperor Theodosius in 1503 and the next Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a French aristocrat, was the one who proposed the concept of reviving the Olympic Games. Coubertin had a keen interest in education and was certain that young people’s bodies should also be developed in addition to their minds;

241 athletes from 14 nations competed in 43 events at the first Olympic Games in Athens in 1896, which were held in the Panathenaic Stadium. At the Paris Olympics in 1900, there were approximately 997 competitors from 24 nations. The 1900 Olympic Games were historic because 22 women competed in a few sports for the first time. As the games gained popularity, many nations participated. At the Summer Olympics in Rio in 2016, 11,238 participants representing 207 nations competed in 28 sports.

Olympism Concept

A way of life known as olympism puts athletics at the service of humanity. The interaction of the attributes of the body, will, and intellect forms the foundation of this philosophy. Olympic ideals are demonstrated via deeds that unite culture, education, and athletics.
The Olympic Movement and the celebration of the Games both depend on this idea. Additionally, it is what sets them apart.
This ideal, together with the other “basic principles of Olympism” [included in the Olympic Charter], inspires a set of ideals that are applicable both in the arena of competition and in daily life.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Olympics Values (Excellence, Friendship & Respect)

The IOC has identified the following three Olympic values:
Excellence – This value in the Olympic ideal relates to giving one’s all, whether it be on the playing field or in everyday life, without comparing oneself to others and with the primary goal of pursuing one’s own goals with steadfastness.
It’s important to remember that competing isn’t just about winning; it’s also about taking part, achieving individual goals, trying our best every day, and reaping the rewards of having a strong body, will, and mind.

Friendship – The Olympic Movement places men and women at the centre of its efforts to strengthen relationships and promote intercultural understanding. This value broadly refers to creating a peaceful and better world through sports through cooperation, camaraderie, joy, and optimism.
The Olympic Games encourage people to put aside differences in politics, economics, gender, race, or religion and form friendships regardless of them.
The athletes demonstrate this ideal by developing enduring relationships with both their teammates and rivals.

Respect – This virtue embodies the moral code that all athletes participating in Olympic programmes should aspire to according to the Olympic ideal. Respect for oneself, one’s body, one another, for the law, and for the environment are all included. Thus, it alludes to the integrity that each athlete must exhibit while competing, as well as refraining from doping. When the Olympic Games are taking place, these principles are effectively communicated.
The Olympic Movement, however, still spreads through the continued efforts of the Olympic family members between iterations of the Games.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Olympics Symbols

Five rings that are interlaced and have equal amounts of each of the five colours that make up the Olympic logo. From left to right, the rings’ colours are blue, yellow, black, green, and red; the blue, black, and red rings are positioned on top, while the yellow and green rings are positioned at the bottom. The five rings represent the union of the five continents—North and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe—and serve as a reminder of the solidarity of athletes competing at the Olympic Games from all seven continents.

Olympic rings
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Olympics Motto

“Citius – Altius – Fortius,” which translates to “Faster – Higher – Stronger,” is the motto of the Olympic Games. It conveys what the Olympic Movement hopes to achieve. Pierre de Coubertin made the suggestion when the International Olympic Committee was established in 1894.
It belonged to Coubertin’s acquaintance, the athletically inclined Dominican priest Henri Didon. In 1924, during the Olympic Games in Paris, France, the Olympic motto was first revealed.

Olympics Flag

olympic flag
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Baron Coubertin designed the Olympic flag, which was displayed in 1914. It has a borderless, white background. The five interlocking rings that represent the Olympic logo are positioned in the centre. The Olympic flag features a white backdrop with five interlaced rings in the centre that are different shades of blue, yellow, black, green, and red, according to Pierre de Coubertin. The six colours used in this design are those seen on all current country flags of the world (1931), and they symbolise the five continents of the world that are unified through olympism. In Antwerp, Belgium, the flag was raised for the first time in 1920.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Olympics Oath

The athlete then takes the following oath:
“We promise to take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules and in the spirit of fair play, inclusion and equality. Together we stand in solidarity and commit ourselves to sport without doping, without cheating, without any form of discrimination. We do this for the honour of our teams, in respect for the Fundamental Principles of Olympism, and to make the world a better place through sport.”

Olympics Anthem

The Olympic Hymn, commonly referred to as the Olympic Anthem, was composed by Spiro Samara and is played as soon as the Olympic flag is raised during the opening ceremonies of the Olympic Games.

The Olympic anthem
“Immortal spirit of antiquity,
Father of the true, beautiful and good, Descend, appear, shed over us thy light
Upon this ground and under this sky
Which has first witnessed thy unperishable fame
Give life and animation to those noble games! Throw wreaths of fadeless flowers to
the victors In the race and in the strife!
Create in our breasts, hearts of steel!
In thy light, plains, mountains andseas
Shine in a roseate hue and form a vast temple
To which all nations throng to adore thee, Oh immortal spirit of antiquity!”

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

On June 23, 1894, Pierre de Coubertin established the International Olympic Committee (IOC), electing Demetrios Vikelas as its first leader. It is a non-profit organisation with its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The IOC’s goal is to carry out the mission, role, and duties allocated to it by the Olympic Charter. The IOC’s official languages are English and French. The Olympic Games, which were first held in Athens, Greece in 1896 and Chamonix, France in 1924, respectively, are organised by the Committee. The Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same year before 1992, but the IOC modified the Olympic Games’ calendar following that year.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Mission and role of International Olympic Commmittee

1. To encourage and support the promotion of ethics and good governance in sport as well as education of youth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned.
2. To encourage and support the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions.
3. To ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games.
4. To cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace.
5. To take action to strengthen the unity of the Olympic movement, to protect its independence, to maintain and promote its political neutrality and to preserve the autonomy of sport.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

Organization and Setup of International Olympic Committee

The powers of the International Olympic Committee are exercised through the following three organs:
a. The Session – The Session is the general meeting of the members of the IOC. It is the IOC’s supreme organ. Its decisions are final. An ordinary Session is held once a year.
Powers of the session are –
> to adopt or amend the Olympic Charter;
> to elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board;
> to elect the host city of the Olympic Games;
> to elect the city in which an ordinary Session is held.
> to approve the annual report and financial statements of the IOC;

b. The IOC Executive Board – The Executive board was established in 1921 to oversee IOC business. The President, four Vice-Presidents, and ten other members of the Board are chosen by the IOC members in a secret ballot vote during the session.
As per Olympic charter it performs following duties –
> it monitors the observance of the Olympic Charter;
> it approves all internal governance regulations relating to its organisation;
> it submits a report to the Session on any proposed change of Rule or Byelaw;
> it submits to the Session the names of the persons whom it recommends for election to the IOC;
> it establishes and supervises the procedure for accepting and selecting candidatures to organise the Olympic Games;
> it establishes the agenda for the Sessions;

c. The President – The IOC members elect the President during the session by secret ballot for a term of four years, which may be extended for an additional four years. The President is in charge of planning and organising all Executive meetings as the IOC’s representative.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

National Olympic Committees (NOC)

One of the three entities that make up the Olympic Movement, together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Sports Federations, is the National Olympic Committee.

By sending athletes and officials, they are responsible for ensuring that their respective nations are represented in the Olympic Games. They are also responsible for advancing the core ideals and concepts of Olympianism in their nations, particularly in the areas of sport and education.

They could also suggest potential hosts for upcoming Olympic Games.

206 NOCs exist at the moment.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 2 Notes

National Sports Federations (IFs)

The International Sports Federations (IFs) are responsible for the integrity of their sport on the international level.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has granted recognition to the International Sports Federations as the non-governmental organisations that oversee one or more international sports. They are associated with the national federations that control those sports. International Sports Federations seeking IOC registration must make sure that their laws, practises, and activities are in compliance with the Olympic Charter while maintaining their independence and autonomy in the administration of respective sports.

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