Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 11.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Fundamentals of Anatomy

The science of anatomy examines the composition of the human body and the connections between its many sections.
The Greek words ana, which means apart, and tomy, which means to cut, are the origin of the word anatomy. As a result, the term “anatomy” alludes to dissection and is best described as the science of a body’s structure as learned by dissection. In other words, anatomy is the study of the composition, organization, and interrelationships of the human body and its components.

Anatomy is divided into the following categories:

Gross anatomy may further be subdivided into the following categories:

Systemic anatomy – The study of a certain body system’s functions and structures is known as systemic anatomy. It is the study of a collection of bodily elements that cooperate to carry out a specific task. For instance, all of the body’s skeletal muscles would be included in a systemic examination of the muscular system.

Regional anatomy – The study of regional anatomy focuses on how each structure in a particular body region interacts with the others. The interrelationships between bodily parts, such as how muscles, nerves, blood arteries, and other structures cooperate to serve a specific body region, are better understood thanks to regional anatomy. For instance, a study of the abdomen would cover all of the organs, blood vessels, etc. in that region of the body.

Surface anatomy – Surface anatomy is the study of the body’s exterior features, such as the bony projections that serve as landmarks and direct our attention to the deeper tissues. such as hair, nails, and skin.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Importance of Anatomy and Physiology

Helps in physical fitness – A sports person can develop a fit and healthy physique by studying anatomy and physiology to better understand the structure and operation of various human body parts. developing muscle strength and endurance with suitable activities, for instance.

Provides knowledge about body structure – Knowing one’s body’s physical strengths and weaknesses might assist a sportsperson build strength in the games or sports that are most suited to her/his physical make-up.
Examples include creating exercises based on the rotation of joints like the shoulder, which has a ball and socket joint, and the elbow’s extension and flexion, which has a hinge joint.

Provides knowledge about the functions of various organs of the body – Understanding the capacity or functions of the various body systems, such as the cardiovascular system or the nervous system, muscular system, or excretory system, is essential for the physical education teacher or a coach to provide the athletes with proper and beneficial training.

Helps in selection of games – An athlete or coach can select the right sport for a student based on their understanding of body composition. For instance, weightlifting is better suited for students who are short in stature than volleyball and basketball, which are more suitable for taller students.

Protects from sports injuries – Sports-related injuries such sprains, contusions, fractures, joint dislocations, etc. are rather typical on the sports field. Sporting goods are made with safety in mind using an understanding of anatomy. It takes proper knowledge of the activities of bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments to design protective equipment for games and sports that protects the sensitive and delicate organs.

Helps in maintaining a healthy body – Studying anatomy and physiology enables you to use your body in a good, safe, and healthy way by giving you complete understanding of every body part’s nature and function. For instance, understanding anatomy can help you identify excellent and incorrect posture when you’re sitting, standing, lying down, or running.

Helps to learn about individual differences between male and female athletes – Because games and sporting equipment are made differently based on these variances, it is crucial to comprehend the fundamental physiological distinctions between the bodies of male and female athletes. For instance, the weight of sporting equipment like the shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin differs for men and women due to differences in the structure of the shoulders.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Skeletal System

A person’s skeleton is made up of bones and cartilage. The interior framework of the human body is the skeleton. At birth, it has about 270 bones; at adulthood, after certain bones have fused together, it has about 206 bones.

The human skeleton is divided into two functional parts:

Axial skeleton – consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones.

Appendicular skeleton – is attached to the axial skeleton. It is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

The functions of the skeleton include:
1. This skeletal system provides shape and support to the body.
2. It allows the body to create movement by forming the framework of the body, to which the muscles are attached. Movement occurs when muscles contract and pull on bones making them create movement in the joint.
3. Internal organs of the body like heart, lungs, liver, brain etc. are soft and delicate. The skeleton protects these organs.
4. The hard substance of the bones also serves as a storehouse of minerals.
5. Blood cells are also formed within the cavitation of the skeleton which is known as Hematopoiesis.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Classification of bone

Bones can be classified on the basis of different categories:

  • Classification is on the basis of bone tissue.
  • Classification is on the basis of shape and size.

Classification on the basis of bone tissue.

  • Compact Bone – It is dense, smooth small and homogenous
  • Spongy Bone – Compound of needle like pieces of bone.

Classification of bones on the basis of shape and size.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

Type of Bone –

a. Long Bones
b. Short Bones
c. Flat Bones
d. Irregular Bones

Long Bone –
  • Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility to the body.
  • Each long bone is composed of a central shaft and two knob ends.
  • The long bone is covered with a fiber sheet except where it joins with other bones.
  • Where the long bone joins with other bone it is covered with a thin sheet of cartilage.
  • Long bones are found in the upper and lower arm (Humerus, Radius and Ulna) and thigh and leg (Femur, Tibia and Fibula). Some bones in the fingers and toes are also classified as long bones, even though they are short in length. This is due to the shape of the bones, not their size
  • Long bones contain both yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow, which produce blood cells.
Short Bones –
  • Short bones are about as long as they are wide. In fact, they are in cube shape.
  • A short bone is composed of central spongy bone and covered with a thin layer of compact bone.
  • The motion of short bones is limited, and they glide on one another.
  • The carpals in the wrist and the tarsals in the ankles are examples of short bones..
Flat Bones – 
  • Flat bones are thin and flat.
  • They are composed of a central layer of spongy bone between two outer layers of compact bone.
  • They form a bony cage and help in the protection of soft internal organs.
  • Flat bones are found in cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula and hipbone.
    Irregular Bones
  • Irregular bones vary in shape and structure and therefore do not fit into any other category (flat, short or long).
  • They often have a fairly complex shape, which helps protect internal organs. e.g., the vertebrae. Irregular bones of the vertebral column, protect the spinal cord. Some bones of the skull are also irregular bones.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes


The point where two or more bones contact and muscles engage on them to produce movement is known as an articulation, sometimes known as a joint.
Although it is typically assumed that a joint may move, this is not always the case. Many joints only exhibit a restricted range of motion, while others are completely immobile.
On the basis of their structures and functions, joints are further categorized.

There are two types of Joints

a. Functional
i. Synarthrosis (Immovable joints)
ii. Amphiarthrosis (Slightly movable joints)
iii. Diarthroses (Freely movable joints)

b. Structural
i. Fibrous (Immovable Joints)
ii. Cartilaginous (Slightly movable joints)
iii. Synovial (Freely movable joints)

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 7 Notes

The functional classification of joints focuses on the amount of movement permitted by the joint. On the basis of this:

  • Synarthroses or they may be called immovable joints
  • Amphiarthroses which are also known as slightly movable joints
  • Diarthroses or the freely movable joints.

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