Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 11.

Physical Education Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes

Meaning of Yoga

Yoga is a word derived from Yuj which in Sanskrit means union. Yoga is the union of soul with spirit. This union of soul and spirit is a long process which may take even many births according to Hindu scriptures.

Yoga is also considered as union of the nerves Ida and Pingla, union of sunnerve and moonnerve, union of negative and positive, union of Shiva (spirit) with Shakti (mother nature) and union of Mooladhar Chakra (Coccyx plexus) with Sahasrar Chakra (thousand lotus petal plexus). Yoga is a union of Prana Vayu with Apan Vayu (life current with excretion current.)

Importance of Yoga

Yoga is not a religion; rather, it is a way of life that aims for “a healthy mind in a healthy body.” Yoga aids in fostering the balanced growth of all three aspects of the human being—physical, mental, and spiritual. Other types of exercise, like aerobics, only promote physical health. They are mostly unrelated to the astral or spiritual body’s growth.
Yogic exercises infuse the body with vitality from the cosmos.

The benefits of Yoga include

  • Facilitating attainment of perfect equilibrium and harmony.
  • Promoting self-healing.
  • Removing negative blocks from the mind and toxins from the body.
  • Enhancing personal power.
  • Increasing self –awareness.
  • Helping develop attention and concentration, especially important for children.
  • Reducing stress and tension in the physical body by activating the para sympathetic nervous system.

Introduction to Ashtang Yoga

Ashtanga is a highly athletic and energetic style of hatha yoga that consists of six series or levels and a set sequence of poses. It has its roots in vinyasa, which emphasises energy and breath while moving between poses. It encourages mental clarity and inner serenity despite being a very physical discipline.

Element of (Ashtang Yoga)

Yoga includes more than just physical exercise. It’s a way of life with a deep intellectual foundation. The ten good common sense rules for living a healthier, happier life and bringing spiritual awareness into a social context are the yamas (social constraints) and niyamas (self-discipline). Because yoga is not about mindlessly following orders from others, but rather about discovering one’s own truth and “connecting” with it, these are matters for the individual to consider and examine.

a. Yamas – Ashtang Yoga’s first “limb” is called Yama. The five yamas are universal activities that support our continued growth on the personal and spiritual levels. The five yamas exhort their followers to abstain from lying, stealing, wasting energy, and being possessive.
The five yamas, sometimes known as moral precepts or standards of behavior toward the outside world, are:

a) Ahimsa — Sanskrit for “non-harming”
b) Satya — Sanskrit for “refraining from dishonesty”
c) Asteya— Sanskrit for “non-stealing”
d) Brahmacharya — Sanskrit for “wise use of vitality”
e) Aparigraha— Sanskrit for “non-possessiveness”

b. Niyamas – The second element of Asthang Yoga, the niyamas, focuses on how we engage with our inner selves and universe.
Following the Niyamas enables a person to control their behavior and establish a healthy atmosphere in which to develop.

a) Sauch aorpurity (सौच या शुद्धता)
b) Santosh aorcontentment (संतोष)
c) Tapa orausterity (तप तपस्या)
d) Swadhyayaor self-education,and (स्वाध्याय या स्व-शिक्षा)
e) IshwarPranidhanor meditation on the Divine. (परमात्मा पर ध्यान)

Benefits of Practicing Yamas & Niyamas

The Yamas and niyamas support the holistic management of our energies and the growth of both our inner and outer selves. They support us in developing a sympathetic and aware self-perception. They aid in upholding life’s morals and in striking a balance between our inner development and external restriction.

a. Asanas – The physical practise of yoga poses is known as asana. A position that is in tune with one’s inner consciousness is called an asana. It seeks to achieve a stable, pleasant sitting position to encourage meditation.

b. Pranayama – The phrase “pranayama” is a composite of the words “prana” and “yama,” and it refers to maintaining prana in a healthy state throughout one’s life. Pranayama is the art of the life energy, or prana, and is more than just a breathing practise.
According to Hatha Yoga, Pranayamascan be classified under –
a) Surya Bhedi
b) Ujjai
c) Sitkari
d) Sitli
e) Bhastrika
f) Bhramari
g) Murchha, and
h) Kewali.

c. Pratyahara – According to Patanjali’s, the fifth of the eight stages of Ashtang Yoga, or pratyaharais, is the “withdrawal of the senses.” It also refers to the withdrawal of the five senses from outside objects in order to be replaced by internally produced senses of an enlightened deity. It is the first step of the six-branch yoga of the Buddhist Kalachakra tantra.

d. Dharana – The three primary phases of meditation are the final three limbs of Ashtang Yoga. Dharana entails strengthening and expanding our capacity for focus. This entails using a variety of attention- and mind-control techniques, such as focusing on the chakras or inwardly shifting.

e. Dhyana – The state of meditation known as dhyana occurs when the mind achieves a condition of sustained attention without becoming distracted. Contrary to the other six limbs of yoga, this one isn’t a technique in the strictest sense; rather, it’s a delicate condition of awareness in which the mind has been stilled and, in the resulting stillness, generates few or no thoughts. The ultimate level of Samadhi should appropriately come before this one.

f. Samadhi – The capacity to unite with one’s actual self and blend into the focus of attention is known as samadhi or absolute absorption. In this mental state, perception itself unites perceiver and perceived object, creating a real unity of all thought and action. This is the pinnacle of yogic endeavors—the ultimate union of the individual with the soul of all beings.

Introduction to Yogic Kriyas (Shat Karma)

The human body is said to be made up of three basic components termed tridoshas, which are known as Vata (the mechanical functional constituent of the body), Pitta (the chemical functional constituent of the body), and Kapha (material functional constituent of the body). Diseases result from any imbalance in the components of the body. Yoga suggests six purifying techniques to restore and maintain the balance of these tridoshas. They go by the name Shat kriyas (six purification processes).

1. Kaphalabhati – Purification of frontal lobes and lungs.
2. Trataka – gazing without blinking.
3. Neti– Nasal cleansing.
4. Dhauti– Cleaning of digestive tract, stomach.
5. Nauli– Abdominal massage.
6. Basti – Colon cleaning.


The word “kapalabhati” is made up of the phrases “shining, lighting” and “skull,” where “skull” in this context refers to both the skull and all of the organs under the skull. The under-the-skull organs, particularly the brain and the tiny brain, are positively impacted by the process.

Techniques –
1. Sit comfortably in an upright posture and rest your hands on your lower belly.
2. Draw your navel to your spine in a quick motion, forcefully expelling all the air from your lungs. The primary movement is from your diaphragm.
3. Allow your lungs to fill naturally, with no effort.
4. Perform this cycle ten times, then allow your breathing to return to normal and observethesensations in your body. Repeat these cycles of ten movements three to four times.

Benefits –
1. Effective in reducing weight by increasing the metaboli crate.
2. Clears the nadis (subtle energy channels).
3. Stimulates abdominal organs and thus is extremely useful for those suffering from diabetes.
4. Improves blood circulation and adds radiance to the face.
5. Improves digestive tract functioning, absorption and assimilation of nutrients.
6. Calms and uplifts the mind.


The Sanskrit term “trataka” means “to look, or to gaze.” Trataka is the act of fixating on something outside of oneself. This fixed gaze technique for meditation is focusing on one thing, whether a little item, a black dot, or a candle flame. It is a technique used in yoga to improve focus, bolster the eyes, and activate the ajnachakra.

Techniques –
1. Sit on a floor-mat in sukhasana, or in any comfortable position, or even on a chair.

2. Sit calm lyand breath enormally with your waist, back and neckerect.

3. Keep a lighted candle or oil lamp on a stool or table at a distance of 2 feet from you.

4. Remember, it should be at eye level. Please ensure there is no breeze or wind that might the make the flame flutter.

5. Now, fix your gaze upon the flame.

6. Continue to gaze non-stop, without blinking until you feel the strain in your eyes and they start to water.
7. Once this happens, close your eyes.

8. Now rub the palms of both hands vigorously, until warm, and place the mon your eyes.

9. Visualize the flame at the centre of your eye brows.

Benefits –
1. Improves eyesight and vision.
2. Improves concentration, intelligence and memory.
3. Enhances self-confidence, patience and will power.
4. Calms the mind and provides inner peace and silence.
5. Brings greater clarity in mind and improves decision-making ability.


It is a form of shatkarma, or purification, that involves irrigation of the sinuses or cleaning of the nasal passages. There are two varieties of netione: sutraneti and jalaneti.
1. Jalaneti – A netipot is used by the practitioner of the traditional Indian yoga technique known as jalaneti, which means literally “water purification,” to clear out the nose cavity. Nasal irrigation is the phrase used by scientists to describe the technique.

Techniques –
1. Mix one cup of warm water with half a teaspoon of salt, to make a solution. It is preferable to use pure neti salt, for better results

2. Pour the salt and water solution into the Neti Pot

3. Place the spout into one of the nostrils. The cone needs to be placed into the nostril and sealed inside thoroughly, with the help of a few gantlet wists

4. Let the water to flow right into the nostril and then tilt your head on to one side, so that the water can flow out through the other nostril

5. During this procedure, you need to ensure that you breathe through your mouth. Moreover, you need to make sure that you neither sniff, not swallow while the water is flowing between the nostrils, or else you could experience a severe bout of coughing.

1. Reduces allergy problems.
2. Improves breathing.
3. Eliminates post-nasal drip.
4. Cures sinusitis or chronic sinusin fections.
5. Improves resistance to common colds. (Common colds are either avoided or the duration greatly shortened.)
6. Improves sense of smell.

2. SutraNeti – A yogic method known as sutraneti is used to clean the nasal passages in a certain way. A waxed cotton string is placed into the nose during Sutra Neti and subsequently removed from the mouth. After that, the string’s ends are moved back and forth while being held in place by both hands. Nowadays, rubber catheters are used instead of strings since they are more widely available at medical supply stores.

1. Place a rubber string in front of your left nostril, holding it horizontally
2. Push this rubber string along the side of your nose, till you can feel it touch the back of your throat
3. Insert your middle finger and index finger through the mouth to catch the tip of the string at the back of the throat
4. Using one hand pull the string partially out of your mouth gently while still holding the other tip too
5. Move the string in a gentle massaging motion so that it cleans the nasal passage
6. While removing the string, pullitout of the nose
7. Repeat the exercise with the other nostril

1. It helps to maintain nasal hygiene by removing the dirt and bacteria trapped in the mucus in the nostrils.
2. It de-sensitizes the sensitive tissues inside the nose, which can alleviate rhinitis, allergies and some types of asthma.
3. Several health problems like sinusitis, migraine, headaches, can be reduced by doing Neti.


Dhauti is a crucial component of the yogic system of body-cleansing practises known as Shatkarma. The digestive system and stomach are cleansed by a set of yoga exercises. It primarily works to clean the entire length of the digestive tract, but it also benefits the respiratory system, external ears, and eyes. People with certain medical conditions should not practise these activities.

  1. ulcers
  2. hernias
  3. heart disease
  4. hypertension

Benefits of Dhauti

1. Dhauti cleanses the complete body including the respiratory system and the entire digestive system.
2. It eliminates excess bile, stomach acids, mucus and toxins inside the body and restoresit to its naturally balanced state.
3. It can benefit those suffering from constipation, indigestion, acidity, heartburn, dyspepsia, biliary disorders and disorders of the stomach. Broadly speaking there are three types of dhautis that are prominently practised.


One of the Kriyas or Shatkarmas from yoga is nauli. The exercise is based on massaging the internal belly organs with a circular motion of the abdominal muscles and is intended to serve the cleaning of the abdominal region, including the digestive organs and small intestine. Although Nauli is a traditional Hatha Yoga exercise, it is not taught in mainstream yoga schools. Nauli is regarded as a challenging workout that can only be taught with persistence and patience.

1. Nauli strengthens the abdominal muscles and massages the intestines and organs of the lower abdomen.
2. It regulates blood pressure and has a preventative effect against diabetes.
3. It is helpful for heartburn and skin diseases (acne).
4. It improves the digestive system.


Primary purpose is to clean the lower abdomen, particularly the colon. Numerous positive effects are typically attributed to it by the Hatha Yoga and other sources. Basti can be done using one of two methods:

  • Sthalabasti (also known as Sushkabastior Vatabasti), cleans the colon bys ucking air inthe body without the help of any catheter ortube.
  • Jalabasti (also known as Vatibasti) cleans the colon by sucking water into the anus. It is allowed the use of a cathetertube.

Physical Education Class 11 Syllabus | Notes | Questions and Answers

Physical Education Class 11 Notes 

Physical Education Class 11 Questions and Answers 

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