Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 11.

Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

Concept of Sports Training

The process of preparing human resources to carry out a certain task or activity is known as training. Simply put, sports performance training is a sort of exercise intended to raise a person’s level of fitness and their capacity to compete in a particular activity.

Principles of Sports Training

These guidelines make it easier for a trainer to implement an effective training programme.
1. Principle of Continuity – Sports training should be done continuously, without irregular breaks, since it is a regular occurrence. Although it is a continuously procedure with planned breaks, the breaks should not be too long because doing so might damage the sportsperson’s performance.

2. Principle of Individual Differences – Each individual is unique. Each person differs from the others in terms of their talents and attributes, as well as how they react to training and exercise. While some people can withstand larger training loads, others could do better at higher intensities. As a result, the concept of individual variances must be taken into consideration while developing a training programme.

3. Principle of Cyclicity – Different training cycles are used into the creation of a training plan. The three cycles are micro, meso, and macro, with micro being the shortest at 3–10 days. The medium-duration meso cycle lasts between three and six weeks. The macro cycle, which may last up to a year, is the longest cycle of them all. Different microcycles and mesocycles make up a macrocycle.

Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

4. Principle of Overload – In sports training, load is referred to as the stress placed on the body to improve the performance of the athlete. This demand may be physical, physiological, or psychological. The most important thing to keep in mind when organising a training session is that the load should be higher than usual to help the adaptation process and hence enable performance improvement.

5. Principle of Progression of load – The training load must be higher than the typical load, as was mentioned before. According to this theory, the training load must be increased gradually and in line with the sportsperson’s capabilities in order to prevent any unwelcome strain on the individual’s muscles.

6. Principle of Active Involvement – An athlete’s performance is not only a result of their coach’s abilities. Only when the athlete’s efforts are combined with the coach’s expertise can a training programme produce the best outcomes. This idea emphasises the athlete’s eager involvement in the training programme.

7. Principle of Variety – Training is an ongoing process that can become terrible. As a result, a coach must provide variation to a training plan in order to avoid boredom and ensure its effectiveness. Changes can be made by adding new drills and exercises, moving the training session’s time of day, altering the training group, etc.

8. Principle of Specificity – This maxim emphasises the idea that “practise makes perfect.” It goes on to say that training on a certain muscle or fitness component will help that area to develop the most. As a result, one must practise a certain ability or component in order to improve it and get the results they want.

Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

9. Principle of General and Specific Preparation – Athletes must prepare both generally and specifically in order to improve their athletic performance. The foundation for particular preparation is laid up by general preparation. While particular preparation will strengthen the functional capability of the body systems to further improve performance, general preparation concentrates on the development of overall fitness components.

10. Principle of Warm Up and Cool Down – It’s important to warm up and cool down if you want to perform at your best. These two must be included in the design of training. By boosting blood flow to the working muscles before a workout, warming up reduces muscular soreness and, ultimately, damage.

Training Load

The phrase “training load” refers to the overall volume, level of intensity, and kind of physical activity an athlete engages in during both training and competition.

There are three types of load

a. Internal Load – How an athlete feels they are working. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate response to a stimulus are the two methods used to measure internal load most frequently.
b. Acute Load – Training load that have been accumulated in the last week.
c. Chronic Load – Average training load collected during a period of 4 weeks.

Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

Current Concepts in Load, Overload and Recovery
1. Load – The body’s reaction to training load is influenced by a number of variables. An athlete who trains too much runs the danger of being hurt, becoming sick, and performing worse. Undertraining for anticipated activity and/or competition demands might occasionally make an athlete more prone to injury and poor performance.

2. Overload – Overload happens when the body’s adaptive ability is insufficient due to an imbalance between the external and internal loads, which manifests as changed performance, injury, and/or sickness.

3. Recovery – The time and process during which the body adapts to load is called recovery. A good recovery can lead to beneficial adaptations for athletic ability, performance, and sickness and injury risk, whereas a bad recovery can lead to negative adaptations for these factors.

Concept of Doping

The use of illegal chemicals, pills, or therapies by athletes with the goal of enhancing sports performance is referred to as “doping.” Athletes have been using drugs for years.

The use of drugs in sports has existed since the first Olympic Games in ancient Olympia. Historians have written about the usage of performance-enhancing drugs ever since the competition’s commencement in 776 BC.

Training and Doping in Sports Class 11 Notes

Doping disadvantages

Doping is unfair and cheating in sports. Doping can be justified as unfair or cheating, hence it should be prohibited. Some of the disadvantages of doping are –

  • Liver abnormalities and tumors
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart and blood circulation problems
  • Aggressive behaviors, rage or violence
  • Drug dependence
  • Teenagers’ stunted growth and development, as well as their potential for future health issues

Physical Education Class 11 Syllabus | Notes | Questions and Answers

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