Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 2 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 2 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 12.

Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 2 Notes

What is Posture?

Posture is how you hold your body. The position that the body adopts while engaging in muscular activity is known as posture, and it can also occur as a result of a group of muscles working together in concert to maintain stability. There are two categories for posture.

a. Dynamic posture – Dynamic posture is the way a person holds themselves while moving, for as when walking, jogging, or stooping to pick up something.

b. Static posture – When one is not moving or motionless, such as when sitting, standing, or sleeping, they are holding themselves in a static position.

Common Postural Deformities

There are many different postural defects, some of which are listed here with suggested treatments. Corrective exercises must be carried out with the guidance and supervision of a doctor or physiotherapist.

common postural deformities

Knock Knees

Knock Knees, also known as Genu valgum, is a knee misalignment that turns the knees inward. As a result, both knees touch or knock against each other in a normal standing posture but there is a gap of 3-4 inches between the ankles.

Knock Knees

Corrective Measures

The finest exercises include riding a horse, keeping a pillow between your legs, and staying still for a while. Yoga and exercise can help straighten and stabilise the knees for the majority of persons with Genu valgum.

Flat Foot

Pes planus and falling arches are additional names for the flat foot. One or both of the feet may have little to no arch, which is known as flatfoot. The bottom of your feet press into the ground when you stand. A foot’s arch is usually hidden, but occasionally it can be seen when you lift the foot. Flat feet are a common congenital defect.

flat foot

Corrective Measures

Exercises that involve walking, standing or jumping on all four feet in all directions, as well as skipping rope, help to build strong foot muscles.

Round Shoulders

A narrow curve in the upper back is caused by round shoulders, a postural malformation in which the shoulders are bent forward from their optimal position. It results in abnormal postural alignments such hyperkyphosis, often known as hunchback and anterior head carriage or front head position. 

round shoulders

Corrective Measures

The most crucial steps in treating rounded shoulders are muscle strengthening, stretching, and attempting to balance out the muscles by performing planks, pull-ups, reverse shoulder stretches, chest stretches, T stretches, wall stretches, Handclasp stretches, etc.


Kyphosis is a more pronounced front-to-back bend of the spine. Abnormal forward rounding of the upper back is known as kyphosis. Other names for kyphosis include Hunch Back and Round Upper Back. The Greek word kyph, which meaning bent or bowed, is the root of the English word kyphosis. It is a spinal ailment where the curvature of the upper back becomes more pronounced or pronounced.


Corrective Measures

To get the best results, you should practise yoga asanas like Dhanurasana, Chakrasana, and Bhujangasana in addition to physical therapy, swimming, exercising with a gym ball, band exercises, and physical activity.


Lordosis is derived from the Greek word lordos, which means to bend backward. The neck, upper back, and lower back of the spine all have slight curvature. The upper back’s kyphotic (S shape) and lordotic (S shape) curves are what give the spine its S shape (neck and lower back).


Corrective Measures

Exercises that strengthen the pelvic area, such as sit-ups, leaning against a wall and pulling your spine backward, and lying on your back and rising your arms and legs at the same time, will be very beneficial. Yoga asanas like Halasana and Dhanurasana will be beneficial.


The Greek word skolios, which meaning bent, is where the name scoliosis originates. When the spine is twisted to one or both sides of the body, it is said to have scoliosis. It is a posture of the body’s sideways curvature or extreme lateral curvature. In this disease, the spine rotates, twists, or bends into a C- or S-shaped configuration. Scoliosis affects girls more often than boys, It can happen at any age.


Corrective Measures

It is not essential to treat mild cases of scoliosis. In order to prevent the curvature from getting worse, some kids might need to wear a brace. Others could require surgery to straighten their spines and prevent the condition from getting worse. Exercises like swinging and hanging from horizontal bars ought to be performed on the other side of the C-shaped curve.

Bow Legs

Bow Legs, often referred to as Genu varum, is a kneeling position in which the legs appear to be curled into a bow while the feet and ankles are in contact. Bow legs are common in babies and young children. It may be brought on by a deficiency in calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D and is easily treatable when caught early.

bow legs

Corrective Measures

In addition to a proper consumption of a balanced diet, the use of braces and adapted shoes may prove to be beneficial. It could also be beneficial to walk on the inside of your feet.

Participation of Women in Sports in India

Women’s participation in sports has dramatically increased, there is still a significant gap between women and men’s participation rates. Sports equality is still hampered by these inequalities. Many organisations and programmes continue to be conservative and do not support gender equality in sports.

According to the study, up to 64% of Indian people did not engage in any sport or physical activity. When the data was broken down by gender, the results were even worse: nearly 1.5 times as many men (42%) as women (29%) reported playing sports.

Constraints for Women’s Participation in Sports in India

Physical Constraints – In general, it refers to a sportsperson’s characteristics, such as their levels of physical fitness. The level of sports performance is lowered if any of these necessary elements are not reached. Several examples are: heavy limb, pelvic, or abdominal muscles, poor posture, postural imbalance, or flat foot muscles.

Physiological Constraints – Physiological limitations describe how organ functions ultimately affect how well the system coordinates. When an organ is dysfunctional, it affects how well a person performs in sports. Some women have lower numbers of RBCs, a lower percentage of haemoglobin, a smaller or less robust heart and its blood circulation, and a smaller or less robust respiratory system.

Psychological Constraints – The behavioral process is influenced by psychological factors such as higher levels of anxiety or anger, low self-esteem, lack of drive for accomplishment or interest. 

Social Constraints – Social norms describe how society as a whole and the sports world in particular behave. Relationships with coaches, arena personnel, training partners, teammates, rivals, and referees have an impact on not only performance but also participation throughout training and competition.

Religious Constraints – In cultures with fundamentalist and conservative religious beliefs, there are many restrictions on religion. They worry that society will reject them for breaking beyond the boundaries of their religion. This could possibly be the reason why there are fewer Indian women who participate in sports.

Economic Constraints – The biggest barrier to women’s participation in sports is thought to be financial limitations. Women leave the sporting world due to a lack of funding and sponsors. The triangular or pyramidal variables amplify economic restrictions.


Menarche is the term used to describe a female adolescent’s first menstrual cycle. The average age of menarche’s onset is 12.4 years, and it normally happens between the ages of 10 and 16.

There are different types of menstrual disorders which are given below:

Pre-menstrual Syndrome – There are many different signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), including mood swings, sensitive breasts, food cravings, exhaustion, irritability, and sadness. Premenstrual syndrome is thought to have affected up to 3 out of every 4 women who are menstruation.

Amenorrhea – When a person turns 15 without having had a period, they are said to have primary amenorrhea, which is the lack of menstruation. Although anatomical issues can also induce amenorrhea, hormone levels are the most frequent cause of primary amenorrhea.

Dysmenorrhea – Dysmenorrhea is the term used to describe a condition in which menstruation is accompanied by excruciating pain or frequent cramping. Dysmenorrheal symptoms can include cramping in the lower abdomen, low back pain, leg discomfort, nausea, exhaustion, weakness, etc.

Menorrhagia – Menorrhagia is characterized by heavy and long term or continuous menstrual bleeding.

Polymenorrhea – Polymenorrhea is a term used to describe a menstrual cycle that is shorter than 21 days.

Oligomenorrhea – Oligomenorrhea is infrequent menstruation. More strictly, it is menstrual periods occurring at intervals of greater than 35 days.

Metrorrhagia – Metrorrhagia refers to missed, delayed or erratic periods or abnormal bleeding patterns.

Postmenopausal bleeding – Postmenopausal bleeding is bleeding that occurs after one year of menopause or after a woman has stopped having menstrual cycles due to menopause.

Female Athlete Triad

Athletes who participate in sports like long distance running, cycling, cross country, etc. must consume a balanced diet because these activities call for high levels of energy and a substantial caloric intake. These stresses endanger the health of the athlete and cause Female Athlete Triad. The American College of Sports Medicine coined the word “triad” and originally defined its three components in 1992.

  • disordered eating,
  • amenorrhoea and
  • osteoporosis

Osteoporosis – Osteoporosis is caused by a lifelong deficiency in calcium. Low calcium consumption increases the risk of fractures, early bone loss, and decreased bone density. eating problems. Bone deteriorates in both men and women who severely restrict their food intake and who are underweight.

Amenorrhea – When a person is considered primary amenorrheic, they have not had their period by the age of 15. Although anatomical issues can also induce amenorrhea, hormone levels are the most frequent cause of primary amenorrhea.

Eating Disorders – The term “disordered eating” is used to describe a variety of unusual eating habits that may or may not be cause for an eating disorder diagnosis. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are two examples of eating disorders that are diagnosed using stringent guidelines.

Physical Education Class 12 Notes and Syllabus

Physical Education Class 12 Questions Answers and Syllabus

Physical Education Class 12 Notes 

Physical Education Class 12 Questions and Answers

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