Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 12.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Physiological Factors Determining the Component of Physical Fitness

Exercise physiology is the study of how the body reacts to physical activity. We focus on the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems in the human body, all of which are influenced in some way by exercise.

Skeletal Muscles Factor

Skeletal muscles are composed of two different types of muscle fibres. Fast twitch or Type II fibres and Slow twitch or Type I fibres. Most muscles are made up of a combination of fast and slow twitch fibres, and the ratio of these fibres is influenced by heredity, hormones, and exercise habits.

Energy Production Factor

Due to the increased demand for energy by various systems, exercise places a tremendous stress on the metabolic system. In this process, carbohydrates provide energy more quickly than fats and proteins, but fats provide more energy overall than carbohydrates and proteins. The fuel for more intense aerobic exercise is carbohydrates, specifically glucose and glycogen.

Cardiorespiratory Factor

The cardiorespiratory system combines the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, which work together to deliver nutrients that feed the neuromuscular and neuroendocrine systems and promote metabolism by carrying oxygen to the cells. Exercise raises the body’s need for energy, and to supply that need, a suitable volume of oxygen is needed.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Effect of exercise on Muscular System

Muscles that have been built and strengthened via exercise can support and shield joints affected by arthritic conditions as well as shield the bones from harm. Additionally, having strong muscles helps with stability, balance, and coordination. Additionally, exercise enhances the blood flow to the muscles and their ability to utilise oxygen.

Effect of Exercises on Muscular System
Short Term Effect

  1. Increase blood supply
  2. Increased muscle temperature
  3. Increase muscle flexibility
  4. Accumulation of Lactate
  5. Micro tears in muscle fibers

Long Term Effect

  1. Hypertrophy of Muscle
  2. Increase in Strength of ligaments and tendons
  3. Increase of size and number for mitochondria
  4. Increase in myoglobin storage
  5. Increase in glycogen storage
  6. Increase in oxidation/ metabolism
  7. Increase in lactate acid tolerance

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Effect of exercise on Cardio-Respiratory System

Cardiorespiratory system consists two parts.

  1. Cardiovascular System
  2. Respiratory System

Cardiovascular System – It is made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Its primary duties include transporting hormones and other chemicals, removing CO2 and other metabolic waste products, supplying oxygen and nutrition, promoting thermoregulation, maintaining a healthy balance of body fluids, and controlling immunological function.

Respiratory System – The nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs are essential parts of the respiratory system. Additionally, air can enter the respiratory system through the mouth. In addition to carrying air to the lungs, it also regulates blood pH and exchanges gases (O2 and CO2) between the air and blood.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Effect of Exercises on Respiratory System
Short Term Effect

  1. Respiratory rate increases
  2. Tidal volume increase
  3. Rete of exchange of gas increase

Long Term Effect

  1. Efficiency of respiratory muscles increase
  2. Lung volume increase
  3. Pulmonary diffusion increase
  4. Residual volume increases

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Sports injuries

The injuries may result from poor technique, slamming into or crashing into equipment, engaging in intense sporting manoeuvres like diving and sliding, overtraining, or a lack of conditioning. These wounds may not all be of the same kind and may have been inflicted for various reasons.

An athletic injury is defined as “some physical damage or insult to the body that occurs during athletic practice or competition causing a resultant loss of capacity or impairing performance.” Morris (1984)

Soft Tissue Injuries

A soft tissue injury is the damage of muscles, ligaments and tendons throughout the body.

Type of soft tissue injuries

1. Abrasion
2. Contusion
3. Laceration
4. Strain
5. Sprain
6. Incision

1. Abrasion

The most frequent cause of abrasion injuries is moving contact with a rough surface, which results in the rubbing or grinding away of the epidermis’ uppermost superficial layers.

Cause – Abrasion injuries commonly occur when exposed skin comes into contact with a rough surface, causing a grinding or rubbing away of the upper layers of epidermis.

Treatment – Clean the surface of the affected part. Stop bleeding at the earliest by compression bandages. Anti-tetanus injection should be provided.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

2. Contusion

It is the type of hematoma, which refers to any collection of blood outside of a vessel.

Cause – When a part of the body is struck by enough force to crush underlying muscle fibers and connective tissue without breaking the skin, a contusion may occur. It can be due to a blow from a collision with a player or a piece of equipment or because of a heavy fall.

Prevention – All the safety gear to be worn upon while playing (Helmet, anal guards,) should be worn.

3. Laceration

The irregular tear-like wounds caused by some blunt trauma.

Cause – Mostly, laceration is the result of the skin hitting an adjacent object, or an object hitting the skin with force.

Prevention – Proper personal equipment, including eye protection can be helpful in preventing the same.

Treatment – Clean the surface of the effected part. Stop bleeding at the earliest by compression bandages.

4. Strain

An injury to a muscle or tendon known as a strain is typically brought on by overuse, force, or stretching. A strain may simply involve overstretching the muscle or tendon, or it may cause a partial or total tear, depending on the degree of the injury.

Cause – Strains occur suddenly (acute strain) or develop slowly over time (chronic strain). CauseIt includes lifting of heavy objects, running, jumping, throwing etc.

Prevention – Regular stretching and strengthening exercise for any kind of sport can be the preventive measure for strain.

Treatment – It can be managed by applying ice packs and maintaining the strained muscle in a stretched position. (RICE: rest, ice, compression and elevation).

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

5. Sprain

Ligaments, which connect bones in joints with fibrous tissue, can be stretched or torn in a sprain. When you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint, you get a sprain.
An ankle sprain is the most typical type of injury.

Cause – A sprain occurs when one overextends or tears a ligament while severely straining a joint.

Prevention – Regular stretching and strengthening exercises for any kind of sport can be the preventive measure for such kind of sports injury.

Treatment – RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation).

7. Incision

An incision is a cut made into the tissues of the body to expose the underlying tissue, bone or organ.

Cause – Can be caused by a clean, sharp-edged object – such as a knife, razor or glass splinter.

Prevention – The area should be free from the sharp edges.

Treatment – Gently wash the affected area with soap and water to remove the dirt. Dry the incision with a clean, fresh towel before applying the dressing.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Bone & Joint Injuries (Hard Tissue Injuries)

Hard tissue injury refers to damage to the skeletal system of the body. Bone fractures, which occur in these injuries, occur when the bone either cracks or breaks.

Types of Hard tissue injuries or Bone & Joint Injuries

1. Dislocation – When two bones separate where they meet at a joint, it is called a dislocation. The joint may be momentarily deformed and immobilised, and the injury may be excruciatingly painful. Shoulders and fingers are the most frequent sites for dislocations, although they can also happen in the elbows, knees, and hips.

Causes – A dislocation is brought on by trauma that knocks a joint out of place. This injury is frequently caused by mishaps, slips, and falls, as well as contact sports like football. Dislocations can also happen while performing daily tasks if the muscles and tendons that surround the joint are frail.

Symptoms – Symptoms of a dislocation vary depending on the severity and location of the injury. The symptoms of a dislocated joint include-

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Instability of the joint
  • Loss of ability to move the joint
  • Visibly deformed joint (bone looks out of place)

Treatment – While you wait to visit a doctor, icing the joint and keeping it elevated can help with pain management. Treatment consists of:

  • Medication – Your doctor may recommend medication to reduce pain from a dislocation
  • Manipulation – A doctor returns the bones to their proper places.
  • Rest – Once the joint is back in place, you may need to protect it and keep it immobile. Using a sling or splint can help the area heal fully.
  • Rehabilitation – Physical therapy exercises strengthen the muscles and ligaments around the joint to help support it.
  • Surgery – Your doctor may recommend for surgery

2. Fractures – A bone that has broken has a fracture. A fall or a hard tackle are examples of direct impacts that might result in fractures. Overuse is the main factor in the long-term development of stress fractures.

Type of Fractures

  • Stress fractures
  • Greenstick
  • Comminuted
  • Transverse
  • Oblique
  • Impacted

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Stress fracture – Stress fractures may occur because of overuse injuries and the failure to have adequate equipment to protect the body.

Causes – Stress fractures often result from increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too quickly.
Prevention – Low impact activities added to exercise regimen to avoid repetitively stressing a particular part of the body.

Treatment – Rest, cold therapy ice packs, cold compresses, apply ice to the injured area, anti- inflammatory medications such as Ibuprofen, aspirin etc and a recovery time of 6 to 8 weeks is required for healing.

Greenstick – A fracture in a young, soft bone, in which the bone bends.

Causes – These fractures most commonly occur with a fall.

Prevention – Promotion of regular exercise, ensuring the child’s safety by providing proper safety equipment and adequate calcium in the child’s diet can also help to prevent this kind of fracture.

Treatment – Removable splints result in better outcomes than casting in children with – lorus fractures of the distal radius.

Comminuted – A fracture in which a bone is broken, splinted or crushed into number of pieces.

Causes – Direct and indirect trauma or violence can be causes for commutated fracture.

Prevention – Maintaining strong bones by eating food that is rich in calcium and regular exercise can help in the prevention of this type of fracture.

Treatment – An X-ray is important for diagnosing of the condition. An open reduction when the bone fragments are jammed-together using surgical nails, wire plates etc. is required for commutated fracture.

Transverse – Transverse fracture is when there is a straight break right across a bone.

Causes – When a large amount of force is transmitted directly ie., perpendicularly to the bone.

Prevention – Physical activity and weight bearing exercises will make the bones stronger and denser. Bones can also be strengthened by eating foods rich in calcium and taking regular exercise.

Treatment – Can be treated at home along with rest and medicine. A back brace (called TSL)or abdominal binder may be prescribed to reduce the pain by limiting motion at the fracture site.

Physiology and Injuries in Sports Class 12 Notes

Oblique – Oblique fracture is one in which the bone breaks diagonally. Causes – This fracture is usually
caused by an injury to the bone as the result of a fall, accident or other trauma.

Prevention – Bones can be strengthened by eating food rich in calcium and exercising regularly to help prevent this type of fracture.

Treatment – It depends upon the severity of the crack or break. Anti- inflammatory medication, reduction (Resetting the bone) can also help to some extent.

Impacted – This type of fracture occurs when the broken ends of the bones are jammed together by the
force of the injury.

Causes – It is caused mainly when someone falls from height with a great impact.

Prevention – Increased physical activity, weight bearing exercises and maintaining good intake of calcium in food can help in preventing this type of fracture.

Treatment – In an impacted fracture the bones get broken into fragments. Therefore, a sling or a splint may be required to keep the broken bones in place, so that movement of the sharp ends of the broken bone is prevented. This is essential to prevent further damage to the bone.

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