Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 12.

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Concept of Balance Diet and Nutrition

Food is necessary to survive. In other words, anything that we can digest, absorb, and use to support numerous physiological activities of the body is considered as food.


When food enters our mouths, it begins to break down, and our bodies recognise the various chemicals that are present there as food. These chemical components that are found in food are referred to as nutrients.

Nutrients like Carbohydrates, proteins and fats along with water are macronutrients. Other nutrients like
vitamins and minerals are required in small amounts and are called micronutrients. Although these are required in smaller amounts but they are all equally essential for our health. Each of these nutrients plays a significant role in the body.

Carbohydrates – Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen make up the organic molecules known as carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are a major source of energy and provide 4kcal per gramme. Carbohydrates are found in plant foods. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are the three different forms of carbohydrates.

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Summary – Macronutrients, their functions and sources

CarbohydratesCarbohydrates provide energy needed by the body and the nervous system, brain and red blood cellsFruits, cereal grains, milk, sugar, rice, vegetables, pasta, breads
RoughageNot feeling hungry right away after eating, is caused by dietary fibre or roughage.Whole grain cereals (whole wheat atta), whole pulses, peas, beans and other vegetables, fruits like guava, orange, pineapple
ProteinsProteins build and repair body cells; form part of various enzymes, hormones, and antibodies;Milk and milk products, vegetables, grains, fish,
eggs, poultry, meat, legumes
FatsFats provide energy (9kcal/g); carry fat-soluble vitamins; are part of cell membranes, membranes around nerves, hormones, bile (for fat digestion)Meat, poultry, fish, milk and milk products, nuts and seeds, vegetable oils, desi ghee, vanaspati ghee, butter, margarine, cheese
Macronutrients, their functions and sources

Proteins – Proteins are organic substances that also contain nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Amino acids containing nitrogen form the complicated structure of protein molecules. Different types of proteins are created in the body by linking amino acids together in chains. Protein is a crucial structural and functional element of our body and is found in everything from our muscles to our blood to our hormones to our enzymes.

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Fats (Lipids) – Lipids, sometimes known as dietary fats, is a general term for both oils and fats. At normal temperature, fats are essentially solid while oils are liquid. It is the presence of different types of fatty acids which make them liquid or solid.

Vitamin – The compounds that our body needs in trace amounts in order to function properly are known as vitamins. A vitamin that the body need in very small doses to function and maintain health. Animal and plant foods, as well as dietary supplements, are sources of vitamins.

Vitamins are divided into two categories:

  • Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body cells.

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B1Important for nerve function; needed for DNA and RNA synthesisWhole-grain cereals, pulses, peanuts and seeds, mushrooms, green peas, beans, egg yolk and meat
Vitamin B2Important for normal vision and skin healthMilk and milk products; animal products like eggs, liver,
kidney; green leafy vegetables eg., brocoli; whole-grain cereals; legumes
Important for nervous system, digestive system, and skinwhole-grain cereals, pulses, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables (especially mushrooms, asparagus, and green leafy
vegetables), peanuts and peanut butter.
Vitamin B6It helps to making white blood cells and heme in haemoglobin.Meat, Poultry, fish, Nuts, sunflower seeds, pulses, whole
grains, spinach, bananas, potatoes.
BiotinFunctions as coenzyme in metabolic reactions.Widespread in foods like organ meats, such as liver or kidney; egg yolk; nuts, such as almonds, peanuts, and
walnuts; soybeans and other legumes;
Pantothenic acidPart of co-enzyme A (CoA) needed for energy metabolismWidespread in foods: milk, meat, peanuts, eggs
Folic acid /FolateNeeded for maintenance of normal blood pressure and reducing risk of cancerGreen leafy vegetables particularly spinach, pulses,
oranges and orange juice, and liver.
Vitamin B12Needed for making new cells; important to nerve functionMeat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and milk products; not found in plant foods
Vitamin CImportant for immune system, helps in iron absorptionFound in fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, fresh vegetables in the cabbage family, sprouts, amla and guava
Water-soluble vitamins

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin ANeeded for vision in dim light, healthy skin and mucous membranes, growth of skeletal and soft tissues, immune system healthVitamin A from animal sources (retinol): milk, cheese, cream, butter, egg yolk, liver
Vitamin DNeeded for proper absorption of calcium and phosphorus; deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bonesEgg yolks, liver, fatty fish, fortified foods. When exposed to sunlight, the skin can make vitamin D.
Vitamin EAntioxidant; protects cell wallsPolyunsaturated plant oils (soybean, corn, cottonseed, safflower); green leafy vegetables; wheat germ; wholegrain products; liver; egg yolks; nuts and seeds
Vitamin KNeeded for proper blood
green leafy vegetables and cabbage; milk; also produced in intestinal tract by bacteria
Fat-soluble vitamins

Minerals – The body needs minerals, which are inorganic elements, for a variety of physiological processes. Microminerals are those needed in lower numbers and macrominerals are those needed in bigger proportions (trace minerals).

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes


SodiumNeeded for proper fluid balance, regulating alkalinity and acidity of body fluids, nerve transmission, and muscle contractionTable salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, breads, green leafy vegetables, and unprocessed meats
ChlorideNeeded for proper fluid balance, stomach acidTable salt, soya sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, meats, breads, and vegetables
PotassiumNeeded for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contractionMeats, milk, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses
CalciumImportant for healthy bones and teeth; helps muscles relax and contract;Milk and milk products; fish with bones (eg., sardines); fortified soya milk; greens (broccoli,
mustard leaves); pulses
PhosphorusImportant for healthy bones and teeth; found in every cell; part of the system that maintains acid-base balanceMeat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, processed foods
MagnesiumFound in bones; needed for making protein, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, immune system healthNuts and seeds; pulses; leafy, green vegetables; seafood; chocolate
SulphurFound in protein moleculesOccurs in foods as part of protein in meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, pulses, nuts
Trace minerals (micro-minerals)

Very modest levels of trace minerals are required by the body. Despite being a trace mineral, iron requires a somewhat higher dosage than other micro-minerals.

IronIron is considered an essential mineral because it is found in red blood cells as part of haemoglobin that carries oxygen to every cell in the body;Organ meats; red meats; fish; poultry; egg yolks; whole pulses and whole grain cereals; dried fruits; dark green leafy vegetables
ZincPart of many enzymes needed for synthesizing protein and genetic material; has a function in taste perception, wound healing, normal foetal development, production of spermMeats, fish, poultry, whole grains, vegetables
IodineFound in thyroid hormone, which helps regulate growth, development, and metabolismSeafood, foods grown in iodine-rich soil, iodized salt, bread, dairy products
SeleniumAntioxidantMeats, seafood, grains
CopperPart of many enzymes; needed for iron metabolismPulses, nuts and seeds, whole grains, organ meats, drinking water
ManganesePart of many enzymesWidespread in foods, especially plant foods
FluorideInvolved in formation of bones and teeth; helps prevent tooth decayDrinking water (either fluoridated or naturally containing fluoride), fish, and
most teas
ChromiumWorks closely with insulin to regulate blood sugar (glucose) levelsOrgan meats especially liver, whole grains, nuts, cheese
MolybdenumPart of some enzymesPulses, breads and grains; green leafy vegetables, milk; liver
Trace minerals (micro-minerals)

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is essential for ensuring that all the nutrients are consumed in the proper quantities and ratios. This means that meals from all the food groups should be included in a meal in such a way that all the nutrients are provided in sufficient amounts.

Food groups can also be classified according to their functions –

Group 1. Energy giving foods- This category includes foods rich in carbohydrate and fat

  1. Cereals and roots and tubers
  2. Sugar and jaggery
  3. Fats and oils

Group 2. Body building group – this category includes foods rich in protein

  1. Milk and milk products
  2. Meat and meat products, fish, egg or poultry
  3. Pulses
  4. Nuts and oilseeds

Group 3. Protective or regulatory foods – This group include foods providing vitamins and minerals
I, Fruits-
(a) yellow and orange fruits (mango, papaya)
(b) citrus fruits (lemon, orange, mausambi)
(c) others (apple, banana etc.)

II. Vegetables
(a) Green leafy vegetables (spinach, mustard, fenugreek etc.)
(b) Yellow and orange vegetables (carrot, pumpkin)
(c) Others (beans, okra, cauliflower etc.)
(d) Root vegetables- potatoes and yam (arvi) are rich in carbohydrates

Sports and Nutrition Class 12 Notes

Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

Food is a fundamental human need that helps our bodies grow. A variety of nutrients are necessary for a healthy diet. While some of these are “Nutritive Components,” such as Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins, others in the diet have no nutritional significance.

Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

The term “non-nutritive component of food” refers to chemical substances in food that serve no specific nutritional purpose. Some of the non-nutritive components are discussed below.

Phytates – These are abundantly found in unrefined cereals and millets.

Tannins- These are present in legumes, millets like bajra, ragi, spices, tamarind, tea, turmeric and in certain vegetables and fruits.

Trypsin Inhibitors- These inhibit the activity of trypsin in the gut and interfere with digestibility of dietary proteins and reduce their utilisation.

Oxalates- These are present in green leafy vegetables and some legumes. These interfere with calcium absorption.

Goitrogens- These are also known as anti-thyroid substances as these interfere with iodine uptake by thyroid gland and may contribute to development of iodine deficiency disorders when iodine intakes are marginal.

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