Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 12.

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Meaning of Biomechanics

Biomechanics realized after 1950 that the mechanical principles involving on the human body. Biomechanics reduce the risk of injury and boost athletic performance, biomechanics in sport includes a thorough research of sport movements. The field of study involved with analysing the mechanics of human movement is known as sport and exercise biomechanics.

Biomechanics is the combination of two words- bio and mechanics. Bio means, something pertaining to living beings or life, whereas Mechanics is the branch of physics which studies movement or motion of an object or body with the help of mechanical principles.

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Newton’s Law of Motion & its application in sports

One of the greatest scientists and mathematicians to ever live was Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). The three general laws of motion that Newton proposed have come to be known as Newton’s Three Laws of Motion.

Newton’s First Law of Motion: Law of Inertia

A body at rest or travelling in a straight line at a constant speed will continue to do so unless it is acted upon by a force, according to the law of inertia, often known as Newton’s first law, a physics postulate.

The force with which the earth pulls on the mass of a person is measured by their weight. The body’s weight is pointed toward the centre of the earth by this gravitational force that pulls downward. It seems sense that a body’s mass and weight are related. A body will weigh more as its mass increases due to the earth’s stronger pull on it. Mass is not a force, whereas weight is. It has no use. The resistance to change is mass.

Principles related to the Law of Inertia

Combining Translator and Rotary Motion: If properly executed with appropriate timing and sequence, the combined motions will result in the maximum final velocity of “an object” in the desired direction of release (eg., discuss toss, bike riding, car, wheelchair etc.).

Continuity of Motion – Any wait before the following move will cause the advantage obtained by the previous motion to be lost in part or entirely because the first motion’s success indicates the overturning of some inertia (eg., backward roll, pole vaulting). Motion interruption uses energy.

Effects of Momentum – Don’t choke on a tennis racket or baseball bat; instead, choose a longer implement to generate more momentum because the end will travel more quickly.

Transfer of Momentum – Only when the body is in contact with the supporting surface does momentum developed in one body segment transfer to the entire body (eg., earth, diving board).

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Law of Acceleration or Law of Resultant Force

According to the second law, a body’s rate of change in momentum is proportional to the force that results from that force acting on the body and is directed in the same direction.

Important Principles Related with the Law of Acceleration

Acceleration is propositional to the force causing it – A sprinter can enhance acceleration by exerting more force backward and downward on the ground while running. If the force were doubled, acceleration would also double; similarly, if the force were maintained but mass was decreased, acceleration would increase.

Maximum acceleration and efficiency of motion – All forces should be applied consecutively, with precise timing, and as directly as feasible in the intended line of motion in order to obtain maximal acceleration.

Effects of body’s radius on angular velocity – If you tuck your head and bend your knees, the rate of rotation will increase as the radius of rotation decreases. A shorter person will have a higher rate of rotation.

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Law of Reaction or Law of Reciprocal Action Force

According to the third rule of motion, “For every force (action), there is an equal but opposing force (action)”: All forces exist in pairs, and these two forces are equal in strength and directed in the opposite directions.

Principles Related to the Law of Counter Force

Surface variation and the amount of counterforce – When a stable surface is utilised, the counterforce is equal to the applied force. The counterforce will be less, the less stable the surface.

Counterforce in striking activities – The combined momentum of the striking tool and the item at the time of impact determines the amount of force that is applied to an object.

Temporarily stored counterforce – When elasticity is present in a surface or tool used in a performance, an applied force will result in a bend or compression that reflects stored force. This stored force will increase the propulsive force over what it would be otherwise.

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes


Equilibrium is a state of balance. for example If you play sports so much that you don’t have time for your studies, you need to study more and play less, until sports and studying reach a point of equilibrium. Or become a professional athlete.

Static Equilibrium – A body is in static equilibrium when it remains at rest while being affected by many forces.

Dynamic Equilibrium – occurs when a body maintains the same state of motion while being subjected to several forces. A body’s centre of gravity is the location where the algebraic sum of the moments of weights of all the constituent particles is equal to zero.

Biomechanics and Sports Class 12 Notes

Friction & Sports

Friction is the resistance to motion between two moving objects or surfaces that come into contact. In several sports, including bowling and curling, friction is crucial.

There are two types of friction: static and kinetic. While kinetic friction occurs when an object is really moving or sliding, static friction occurs before an object begins to slide. Both have the same formula, however they have distinct coefficients of friction.

Projectile in Sports

Anybody that is tossed or jumped into the air is considered a projectile. Once it has taken off, it will fly along a route known as a parabola until it returns to the ground. This holds true for the throwing of balls, javelins, discuses, long jumpers, high jumpers, and showjumping horses.

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