Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Physical Education (048) class 12.

Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 3 Notes

Yoga Asanas as a Preventive Measure

Yoga is a very old system of disciplines or practises for the body, mind, and spirit that has its roots in India. Asana, according to Patanjali, refers to a stable and comfortable stance, or Sthira sukham asanam. Asana is defined in the Bhavanopanishad as “to sit in a comfortable position or posture for everlasting period.” Asanas can be divided into three categories: corrective, relaxing, and meditative.

The following are the blessings of asanas for prevention of diseases

  • Strengthening of Bones and Joints
  • Improving Blood Circulation
  • Bolstering Immunity
  • Improving efficiency of Respiratory Organs
  • Complementing Performance of Excretory System
  • Strengthening Muscular Tissues


A disease known as obesity occurs when extra body fat builds up to the point that it may have an impact on one’s health. Generally speaking, it is indicated by a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater. Adipose tissue (fat tissue) mass on the body increases when someone gets obese.

Body Mass Index

  • BMI < 18.5 – Below normal weight
  • BMI >= 18.5 and < 25 – Normal Weight
  • BMI >= 25 and < 30 – Overweight
  • BMI >=30 and < 35 – Class I Obesity
  • BMI >= 35 and < 40 – Class II Obesity
  • BMI >= 40 – Class III Obesity
Asanas to Prevent Obesity

a. VAJARASANA – Its name derives from the Sanskrit word vajra, which also means diamond or thunderbolt. To do Vajarasana, you kneel and then relax on your legs to relieve pressure on your knees. In this position, breathing and mental exercises are frequently performed, which is claimed to help your body develop the strength of a diamond.


Benefits of Vajarasana

(a) Vajrasana increases flexibility in the ankles.
(b) Folding of knees and thighs stretches the quadriceps muscles and improves blood circulation.
(c) Elevating the spine from the floor, alters the flow of blood in the pelvic region and pelvic muscles are strengthened.
(d) Vajrasana can be practised even after a meal. In fact, it increases the efficiency of the digestive system and aids digestion.
(e) It increases the blood circulation in the abdominal area.
(f) This asana helps with people suffering from sciatica and sacral infections.
(g) It is beneficial for those suffering from stomach ailments such as peptic ulcer or hyper acidity.
(h) It strengthens the pelvic muscles which helps prevent hernia and aids women in childbirth.

Contraindications of Vajarasana

(a) Person suffering from piles should not practice it.
(b) This asana should not be practiced if one is suffering from injured ligaments at the ankles or at the knees.
(c) Those suffering from hernia or intestinal ulcers should take medical advice and guidance before practicing this asana and should perform it under supervision of a trained yoga teacher.
(d) Runners should avoid this if they have injury in their hamstrings or the calves.
(e) This asana is not to be practiced by people who have severe arthritis and pain in the knees.

b. HASTASANA (HASTOTTANASANA) – The terms hasta, which means arms, uttana, which means stretched up, and asana, which means posture, are the origins from the sanskrit word.


Benefits –
1. This asana improves curvature of the spine.
2. It exercises back, neck and spinal joints.
3. This asana relieves constipation.
4. It makes the waist slim, the chest broad and removes fatty deposits on hips. It also increase height of growing children.

Contraindications –
1. Avoid this asana if you are suffering from severe back, neck and shoulder pain.
2. Patients suffering from pain in the Sciatic nerve should also avoid practising this asana.

c. ARDHA MATSYENDRASANA – The words Ardha, which means half, Matsya, which means fish, Eendra, which means king, and asana, which means position, are derived from Sanskrit. This asana’s name, Ardha- Matsyendrasana, comes from the fact that its final position resembles the half-Lord of the Fish.

ardha matsyendrasana

1. Ardh Matsyendrasana increases lung capacity and improves oxygen supply to the lungs
2. This asana increases purification of the blood as well as of the internal organs.
3. It is an asana that is useful for diabetics (b-cells and t -cells), with concentration on the pancreas.

1. This asana should be avoided during pregnancy and menstruation due to the strong twist in the abdomen.
2. People who have undergone heart, abdominal or brain surgeries should not practice this asana.
3. Care should be taken by those with peptic ulcer or hernia while performing this asana.

d. TRIKONASANA – The terms trikona, which means triangle, and asana, which means posture, are the origins of the name trikonasana. The legs are used to firmly ground the lower body (forming a triangle with the floor) and the vertically extended arm is used to stretch the upper body in this standing position (creating a triangle between the front foot and grounded hand).


1. Trikonasana is very important for people who practice activities like walking or cycling as it increases flexibility and movement in the hips. It helps in strengthening the pelvis and legs, and developing balance in your lower body.
2. It strengthens the back and abdominal muscles.
3. It improves the capacity of the heart and improves cardiovascular functioning.

1. Avoid trikonasana if suffering from migraine, low or high blood pressure, or neck and back injuries.
2. A person suffering from diarrhoea shouldn’t perform this asana.
3. Those who experience dizziness shouldn’t look down at the floor during the final stage.

e. URDHVA HASTOTTANASANA – The Sanskrit words hasta, which means arms, uttana, which means stretched up, and asana, which means posture, are combined to form the name Urdhva Hastotanasana. It is a standing position that is used to warm up the body before more strenuous yoga asanas. UrdhvaHastotanasana requires the use of the arms, shoulders, upper back, neck, and psoas muscles.

urdhva hastottanasana

Benefits –
1. It stretches and tones the abdominal muscles, hence improving digestion.
2. The chest is expanded, giving room for clear passage for breathing from the diaphragm. This in turn relieves asthma and heavy breathing.
3. It relieves constipation.

Contraindications –
1. Avoid this asana if you are suffering from severe back, neck and shoulder pain.
2 Patients suffering from sciatica should also avoid practising this asana.

Diabetes Mellitus

A deficiency in how the body uses sugar causes diabetes mellitus, a metabolic illness. The primary source of energy for all biological processes is glucose, which is produced from the carbohydrates in the food we eat. A hormone called Insulin, which is created by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The amount or calibre of insulin released by the pancreas may be inadequate or inefficient in some people.

Clinical Symptoms

  • Polyuria: Excessive urination.
  • Polydipsia: Excessive thirst.
  • Dehydration due to excessive urinary output.
  • Polyphagia: Increased appetite.
  • Loss of body weight, decreased resistance

Problems, which diabetics encounter more often-

  • Heart Attacks.
  • Rapid deterioration of vision and blindness.
  • Kidney diseases.

Asanas to Prevent Diabetes Mellitus

a. BHUJANGASANA – The word “Bhujanga” means “cobra” in Sanskrit. This pose is known as Bhujangasana because it resembles the “Hooded Snake” in its final state. Lower back, middle back, upper back, biceps and triceps, core (abs), and psoas muscles are all employed in Bhujangasana.


1. The nerves along the spinal column, back and neck are toned, blood circulation is
improved and the spine is supple and healthy.
2. The lower abdominal muscles are also toned and strengthened. The pressure on the
abdomen aids digestion, stimulates appetite, relieves flatulence and constipation.
3. This asana helps burn excess fat deposits around the hips, neck, chest, arms, etc.

The few don’ts or contraindications for Bhujangasana are:
1. Those with severe back problems relating to the spine should avoid this yoga posture.
2. Someone having neck problems relating to spondylitis too should clearly avoid this yoga posture.
3. Those suffering from stomach disorders like ulcers should ensure proper guidance or avoid this yoga posture if discomfort is seen or felt.

b. PASCHIMOTTASANA – The Sanskrit words Paschima, which means west or back or back of the body, Uttana, which means severe stretch or straight or extended, and asana, which means posture, are the origin of the phrase Paschimottasana. One must sit in this position and vigorously stretch their back forward.


1. This yoga posture stretches the muscles around the spine, lower back and the calf muscles, thus improving blood circulation.
2. As the body moves forward, pressure is put on the digestive organs and pelvic organs thus healing them from within and toning them. Digestion improves and much blocked gas in and around the lower abdomen gets released.
3. Respiration is improved by doing this asana as pressure is put on the thorax and abdomen.

Since Paschimottanasana puts a lot of pressure on the lower back when the body is bent forward, it should be avoided by those suffering from
1. slipped disc
2. hernia
3. spondylitis
4. enlarged liver and/or spleen
5. Pregnant women should avoid this asana

c. PAWANMUKTASANA – From the Sanskrit words pawan, meaning wind, and mukta, meaning release or relief, derives the name Pawanmuktasana. If food is not properly digested in the stomach, it can lead to gas buildup, which can lead to many other health problems in our body, including acidity, migraines, and joint pains, to mention a few. This asana assists in expelling wind that has built up in the stomach and intestines, as the name suggests.


Benefits –
1. It improves digestion.
2. This asana helps in releasing the unwanted gas/wind accumulated at various parts around the abdomen thus relieving constipation and flatulence.
3. Joint pains are cured by doing this asana.

Contraindications –
To be avoided or performed under guidance by those suffering from
1. severe migraine
2. High or Low Blood Pressure
3. Asthma
4. slip disc
5. advanced stages of spondylitis
6. Girls/Women should avoid this asana or take the guidance of the teacher while practicing it during menstrual cycle.

Bronchial Asthma

The respiratory system is affected by asthma, which causes the airways to narrow. This disease is frequently brought on by a “trigger,” such as exposure to an allergen, cold air, physical activity, or emotional stress. The symptoms of this narrowing include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Signs and Symptoms of Asthma
a. Asthma is characterized by episodic dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), wheezing and cough.
b. There is difficulty in expiration.
c. Patient may experience tightness of the chest/discomfort in the chest.
d. The attack may last from one to several hours.
e. Severe attack, called “status asthmaticus”, is often not responsive to usual therapy. It is a medical emergency and may affect the heart and circulatory system.
f. Hypercapnia (increased level of CO2), acidosis and hypoxia (decreased O2 level), may occur in Asthma, though these conditions are rare.

Asanas to Prevent Bronchial Asthma

a. SUKHASANA – After spending a lot of time in Siddhasana or Padmasana, you can practise the calming pose known as Sukhasana. The word is derived from the Sanskrit words sukha, which means comfort or pleasure, and asana, which means position. Unlike other meditative postures, sukhasana is performed while sitting cross-legged. It is the most fundamental or straightforward form of meditation.


1. Sukhasana yoga posture facilitates meditation and pranayama.
2. Sukhasana improves awareness regarding the body’s posture and keeps the spine in an ideal position.
3. If you are mentally stressed or have had a tiring day, this posture will offer peace and mental calm.

1. Individuals suffering from backache shouldn’t stay in this position for more than 5 mins.
2. Someone with severe arthritis would find it difficult to sit on the floor as there would be too much pressure at the knees. In such cases, this posture can be avoided or modifications tried.
3. Sukhasana should be avoided by individuals who have undergone knee replacement surgery, or are suffering from problems related to the spine or spinal disc problems.

b. CHAKRASANA – The words chakra, which means wheel, and asana, which means posture, are the origins of the name chakrasana. Chakrasana is an advanced pose performed in supine position. The body’s energy is brought into balance by this odd position and movement, which also greatly boosts self-confidence.


1. The digestive system improves and indigestion is cured as a result of this asana.
2. Chronic headaches and shoulder pains caused by unhealthy lifestyle are cured.
3. Irritation in the calf muscles with uneasy cramps during menstrual times is healed.
4. Chakrasana helps in relieving asthma, back pain, migraine, stress and anxiety.

Chakrasana should not be practised by those who are suffering from
1. a back injury as any form of jerk to the back may not be advisable.
2. Heart problems
3. either High Blood Pressure or Low Blood Pressure
4. Glaucoma or Pressure in Eyes, or has undergone a cataract surgery
5. cervical injury
6. hernia

c. MATSYASANA – Fish and posture are both translated as Matsya in Sanskrit. The ancient Yogic literature claim that Matsyasana helps improve one’s physical and mental well-being by regaining spinal strength and entire body equilibrium. Matsyasana stimulates your lungs, chest, rib cage, spine, and neck muscles, which almost immediately relieves exhaustion. 


1. Matsyasana opens and stretches the neck muscles and shoulders.
2. Helps in opening the chest and corrects round shoulders too.
3. This posture provides relief from respiratory disorders by encouraging deep breathing. Hence, Matsyasana increases lung capacity to a great extent.

Matsyasana should not be practised by someone suffering from
1. high or low blood pressure
2. neck injuries or injury to any part of the lower or middle back.
3. migraine.
4. spondylitis
5. heart ailments
6. Women who are pregnant should not attempt this yoga pose.

d. GOMUKHASANA –The Sanskrit words go, which means cow, and mukha, which means face or mouth, are the source of the term gomukhasana. This seated asana is regarded as an Intermediate Level Posture and calls for a high level of flexibility. This asana works the arms, shoulders, middle and upper backs, biceps and triceps, hamstrings, hips, knees, pelvis, and quadriceps among other body components.


1. The stretch at the hamstrings helps in gaining flexibility and this can be beneficial to athletes in the long run with repeated practice.
2. Gomukhasana enables greater flexibility of the hip joint.
3. It stretches and tones the muscles of the chest.

Gomukhasana should not be practised by those suffering from
1. shoulder pain, back ache, hip or knee pain or stiffness in the shoulders. They may have to take it slow and easy.
2. any kind of hip problems or injury at the knee, hamstrings, and quadriceps.
3. sciatica.
4. any kind of neck and shoulder injury.
6. This asana must be avoided when pregnant.

e. PARVATASANA – The Surya Namaskar sequence of poses includes Parvatasana, also known as the Mountain Pose. In the Surya Namaskara, it may be seen in the fourth and ninth positions. Mountain is called Parvata in Sanskrit. From the sides, the pose resembles a mountain, therefore the name Parvatasana.


1. If done in the morning, Parvatasana keeps you alert.
2. Parvatasana stretches the spine. The stretch in this pose reduces extra fat in the back and waist.
3. It helps practitioners below 18 years to gain some height.

Parvatasana should not be attempted by those suffering from
1. knee pain
2. dizziness.


Blood pressure that is elevated above normal is referred to as hypertension. Risk factors include both the systolic and diastolic pressure readings. Hypertension is commonly recognised as having a blood pressure reading of 140 or higher and a diastolic reading of 90 or higher.

Classification of hypertension
Primary Hypertension is also known as essential hypertension. This is the most prevalent form of hypertension and it has no identifiable cause.
• Benign Hypertension
• Malignant Hypertension

Secondary Hypertension is high blood pressure due to some underlying disease or even medication.
• Cardiovascular Hypertension
• Endocrine Hypertension
• Renal Hypertension
• Neurogenic Hypertension
• Pregnancy-induced Hypertension

a. VAJRASANA – The Sanskrit term vajra, which also means diamond or thunderbolt, is whence its name originates. Kneeling to ease strain from your knees, you lay back on your legs to perform Vajarasana. This position is said to help your body build the strength of a diamond because it involves frequent breathing and mental workouts.


b. PAVANAMUKTASANA – The term Pawanmuktasana is derived from the Sanskrit words pawan, which means wind, and mukta, which means release or relief. Gas accumulation, which can cause a number of other health issues in our body, including acidity, headaches, and joint pain, to name a few, can result from improper digestion of food in the stomach. As its name implies, this pose helps to release wind that has accumulated in the stomach and intestines.


c. BHUJANGASANA – In Sanskrit, the word “Bhujanga” signifies “cobra.” Because it resembles the “Hooded Snake” in its finished form, this pose is also known as Bhujangasana. Bhujangasana works the muscles in the lower back, middle back, upper back, biceps and triceps, core (abs), and psoas.


d. TADASANA – Mountain is referred to as Tada, erect or straight is Sama, and motionless is Sthiti.
Tadasana denotes a posture where one is as firm and upright as a mountain. Tadasana, also known as the Mountain Stance, is regarded as the fundamental standing pose or the starting point for all subsequent yoga poses.


1. The legs become strong at the ankles and the knees. With long periods of practice in this pose, the toning of the leg muscles will help to practice all other standing asanas with ease. Muscles, too, are stretched giving room for expansion and strengthening of the muscles.
2. The hips are raised and this brings a good support to the entire back ensuring the spine is expanded giving room for proper flow of prana to the entire body.
3. Toning of the chest and the shoulders helps in improving bad posture and results in strong upper back.

1. This asana is not beneficial for anyone whose leg muscles are weak or someone who finds it difficult to stand for long periods.
2. Someone who is suffering severe migraine or giddiness would find this asana a challenge.
3. Avoid putting too much strain on the spine by carrying the entire body weight. This can bring more stress to the spine.

e. ARDHA- CHAKRASANA – Sanskrit terms for half, wheel, and posture are ardha, chakra, and asana. Since several variants can be created from Ardha Chakrasana, it is regarded as a base asana. Ardha Chakrasana can be used into flow yoga sequences since it increases bodily energy.

ardha chakrasana

1. This is one of the best yoga asanas to treat and cure respiratory congestion and problems related with lungs viz. asthma, bronchitis, blockage of nasal passage, clearing alveoli etc. It also helps to increase lungs capacity thereby ensures good health.
2. It is beneficial in relieving neck pain if it is performed with care.
3. This asana is extremely beneficial for stiff back muscles and nerves. It is useful in destressing and for strengthening, and suppleness of back muscles and nerves.

1. Consult your doctor before practicing Ardha Chakrasana during pregnancy.
2. Those suffering from serious spine problems should not practice this asana.
3. Ulcer and hernia patient should not practice this asana.

f. SAVASANA – Sava is the Sanskrit word for a body. Because the body in this asana resembles a dead body, the position is known as Savasana. The first chapter of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika explains in verse 32: “Savasana means lying on one’s back on the ground at full length like a corpse.


1. It helps reduce stress and removes physical and mental fatigue.
2. It relaxes all muscles and nerves of the body
3. It is helpful to overcome psychological disorders.
4. It is very beneficial for managing high blood pressure, cardiac diseases and anxiety disorders.

1. A very distracted mind is going to find it difficult to relax and by pushing the body, it will cause more irritation and bring a headache.
2. Someone with severe acidity may find lying on the back very uncomfortable as the food pipe may cause irritation.

Physical Education Class 12 Notes and Syllabus

Physical Education Class 12 Questions Answers and Syllabus

Physical Education Class 12 Notes 

Physical Education Class 12 Questions and Answers

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