Unit 4 Web Application and Security Class 10 Notes IT 402

Teachers and Examiners (CBSESkillEduction) collaborated to create the Web Application and Security Class 10 Notes. All the important Information are taken from the NCERT Textbook Information Technology (402).

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Web Application and Security Class 10 Notes

Session 1 : Working with Accessibility  Options

Computer Accessibility means making computer systems user-friendly for everyone, including individuals with disabilities, with the help of Assistive Technology. It allows people with disabilities or impairments to use computers effectively. There are various types of disabilities that can affect computer usage, such as –

  • Visual Impairment
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Motor Impairment
  • Cognitive Impairments and Learning disabilities.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism
How to Launch Accessibility Option
To launch accessibility options in Windows XP Click on Start > Control Panel > Accessibility Option

Various tabs in Accessibility Option

Keyboard Tab

Sticky Keys : Sticky Keys makes it easier for people with disabilities to use keyboard shortcuts and commands Sticky Keys allowing them to push one key at a time rather than many keys at once. For those who have trouble pushing many keys at once or have motor disabilities.

Filter Keys : People with motor disabilities or who have difficulty typing quickly. When Filter Keys is enabled, the computer will ignore brief or repeated keystrokes, which can reduce accidental keystrokes and improve typing accuracy. This feature also allows the user to adjust the keyboard’s repeat rate and delay.

Toggle Keys : Toggle Keys makes an audible sound whenever the Caps Lock, Num Lock, or Scroll Lock keys are depressed. This feature is useful for people with visual impairments or who have difficulty recognizing when these keys are pressed.

Sound Tab

SoundSentry : If the user have hearing loss, hearing difficulties, or who prefer visual signals can benefit from SoundSentry. SoundSentry helps the computer shows a visual warning indication to the user such as a flashing title bar or taskbar button, to draw the user’s attention.

ShowSounds : This feature is designed to help users who are deaf or hard of hearing or who have difficulty hearing system sounds. This feature provides visual warning and sounds warning both, such as startup sounds with startup logo, error beeps with warning message, flashing windows with sound, bouncing icon with sound, and other system alerts.

Display Tab

Hight Contrast : High Contrast is an accessibility feature in computer which helps to change the font size and color of the text, increases the contrast between foreground and background colors, bolder colors for text, increasing the thickness of lines and borders, This will making text and images more visible and easier to read for people with visual impairments.

Cursor Options : Cursor Options refer to the settings that control the behavior and appearance of the mouse or other pointing device in a computer system, for example change in the cursor speed, pointer size, and mouse button configuration. This option is particularly those who having mobility impairments or difficulties using a standard mouse or touchpad.

Mouse Tab

MouseKeys : MouseKeys is an accessibility feature in computers that allows users to control the mouse cursor using the numeric keypad instead of a standard mouse or touchpad. This feature is particularly useful for people with mobility impairments or difficulties using a standard mouse.

Serial Keys : Serial keys is an accessibility feature that allows users to control a computer using special input devices that can be connected to the computer’s serial port. These input devices, such as sip-and-puff switches or breath controllers, enable users with limited mobility or dexterity to provide input to the computer without using a keyboard or mouse.

Sip-and-Puff input devices typically consist of a mouthpiece or tube that users can sip or puff into, and a sensor that detects the airflow and translates it into input signals that the computer can recognize.

Session 2 : Networking Fundamentals

A network is a group of computers or other devices that are connected together to enable resource sharing, information sharing and communication with the help of communcation channels between the devices in a network. With the help of communication channels user can share file, printers, and other resources, as well as communicate with other using chat, email or video conferencing.

Network are designed based on following architectures –
  1. Peer-to-Peer Architecture: This type of architecture enables devices to communicate and share resources directly with each other, without the need for a central server. This type of network has an equal status and competent CPU.
  2. Client-Server Architecture: This type of architecture uses servers to manage resources and provide services to clients. Clients send requests to the server, and the server responds with the requested information.

Types of Network

  1. Local Area Network (LAN): A network that covers a small area, such as a home or office, and connects devices together to enable communication and resource sharing.
  2. Wide Area Network (WAN): A network that spans a large geographic area, such as a country or the world, and connects different LANs and other networks together.
  3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A network that covers a geographic area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city or region.

Advantages of using Network

  • Resource Sharing: Networks allow to share resources, such as printers, scanners, and storage devices, among multiple users.
  • Communication: Networks allow users to communicate and collaborate with each other through email, chat, video conferencing, and other tools.
  • Data Transfer: Networks enable high-speed data transfer and sharing to multiple users.
  • Centralized Management: Networks allow for centralized management of devices making it easier to monitor and control access to sensitive data and applications.


The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks which connect billions of people world wide using a internet porotocol. It is made up of many different networks, including public, private, commercial, academic and government networks. The basic work of Internet is access and sharing information, resources and services.

What are the different uses of Internet
  • Communication: Online messaging, video calls and social media.
  • Information: Access to vast information through search engines like Google.
  • Entertainment: Streaming music, movies, TV shows, online gaming, and social media.
  • Education: Online learning and educational resources.
  • Commerce: Online shopping and e-commerce.
  • Research: Collaboration and information sharing for breakthroughs in medicine, engineering, and technology.

a) World Wide Web: The World Wide Web, also referred to as the Web or W3, is a collection of connected hypertext pages that may be accessed online. Web pages that contain text, photos, videos, and other multimedia can be viewed using a web browser, and one can use hyperlinks to move between them.

b) Web Browser: A web browser is a software application that allows users to access and view web pages on the World Wide Web. Some of the popular web browsers include Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.

c) Web Server: A web server is a computer system that stores websites and their associated files for access over the internet.

d) Internet Service Provider: An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides internet access to customers. ISPs connect users to the internet via various technologies such as dial-up, DSL, cable, fiber-optic, or wireless connections. ISPs offer various internet plans with different speeds, data limits, and prices.

Example – Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Airtel, MTS, Vodafone, Tata Docomo, etc. 

e) Modem: A modem is a device that enables computers to transmit data over telephone lines or cable lines. It converts digital signals generated by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted over a telephone or cable line, and vice versa. Its is also known MOdulator/DEModulator.

f) Types of Common Internet Connectivity: The many types of Internet connectivity that are currently accessible can be broadly divided into wired and wireless access. The table below provides a summary of several Internet access options, divided into wired and wireless:

TechnologyType of Connectivity
Cable Internet AccessWired
Some of the commonly used Internet connectivity are –

a) Dial-up: Uses a modem to establish a connection over a phone line. Slow and outdated technology.

b) DSL: Digital Subscriber Line uses existing phone lines to provide high-speed internet access. Offers faster speeds than dial-up.

c) Cable Internet Access: Uses a cable television line to provide high-speed internet access. Offers faster speeds than DSL.

d) 3G: Third-generation cellular network that offers mobile internet access.

e) WiMAX: WiMAX (World Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless broadband technology that offers high-speed data transmission over a wide area.

f) Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a wireless networking technology that allows devices to connect to the internet using radio waves.

Session 3 : Introduction to Instant Messaging

Instant Messaging: Instant messaging (IM) is a real-time or online communication method that enables users to send and receive text messages and other digital files through a network or the internet.

Features of an instant messaging are as follows:
  • Quick and easy communication between individuals or groups.
  • It is a cost-effective communication method as it does not require expensive phone calls or postage.
  • Instant messaging allows for real-time collaboration and decision-making.
  • It enables users to share files, images, and other multimedia quickly and easily.
  • Users can stay connected with friends and family around the world in real-time.
  • It provides a record of conversation history.

Type of Instant Messaging : There are two Types of Instance Messaging (IM) Application Based and Web Based.

a) Application Based: Application based instant messaging software can download and installed in Computer and mobile phone. Some of the popular Instance Messaging Software are –

  • Google Talk
  • Yahoo! Messanger
  • Skype
  • Windows Live Messenger
  • Rediff Bol, etc

b) Web Based: Web based instant messaging software can open in web browsers for example Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge etc. Some of the popular web based Instant messaging software are –

  • Yahoo! Messenger (Support Application and Web both)
  • Meebo
  • MSN Web Messanger
  • IMO, etc.

Session 4 : Chatting With A Contact – Google Talk

Google Talk: A free instant messaging service offered by Google was called Google Talk. Users could make audio calls, send files, and chat with other Google Talk users on a computer or mobile device.

Google Talk was officially discontinued by Google in 2017, and its features have been merged into Google Hangouts.
There are some general rules and etiquettes to be followed while chatting.
  • Use appropriate language and tone
  • Avoid using all caps as it can be interpreted as shouting
  • Use proper grammar and spelling to ensure clear communication
  • Respect other people’s privacy and personal information
  • Do not share sensitive or confidential information
  • Stay on topic and avoid excessive or irrelevant messages
  • Be mindful of other people’s time and avoid sending too many messages in a short period
  • Avoid using offensive language or making derogatory comments about others
  • Do not send spam or unsolicited messages
  • Be polite and courteous in all communications.

Session 5 : Creating and Publishing Web Pages – Blog

Blog: A blog is a type of website or online platform where an individual or group of individuals can share their thoughts, opinions, experiences, or knowledge on various topics in the form of written articles or posts. Blogs can be personal or professional in nature, and can cover a wide range of topics such as food, travel, politics, technology, and more.

Some of the popular Website provide blog services are –
  • www.WordPress.com
  • www.blogger.com
  • www.blog.com
  • www.weebly.com
  • www.blogsome.com

Session 6 : Using Offline Blog Editors

Offline blog editors are software tools that allow users to create and edit blog posts offline, without the need for an internet connection. These editors typically offer more features and customization options than online editors, and they allow bloggers to work on their posts at their own pace and on their own schedule.

Free offline blog editors are –
  • Qumana
  • Windows Live Writer
  • Blogdesk

Session 7 : Online Transactions

Online transactions have made transactions very convenient and simplified the workflow in many forms in a business. Online transactions deals with transfer of money over the internet. Revolution in the electronic media has made transaction handling easy .

Online shopping could be useful in situations when:
  • A customer does not have sufficient time to visit stores.
  • When you are unable to leave your home due to illness, disability, or other constraints.
  • When you want to take advantage of online-exclusive deals and discounts.
  • Visiting a store is more expensive than purchasing a product online.
  • A product or service that is not available in the local market is available online.
Some of the popular online transaction websites are:
  • IRCTC, an online portal for booking flight and train tickets.
  • Flipkart, an online shopping portal for buying consumer products.
  • EBay, an online portal for buying and selling goods.
  • Redbus, an online portal for booking bus tickets.

Session 8 : Internet Security

Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security.

Best Practices for Security

Use strong passwords. You can make a password that is difficult for other users to guess or crack by combining alphanumeric and special characters. Avoid using single or combination passwords that include your favourite colour, names of friends or family members, bike number, or mobile number.

Following is a general guideline for managing strong passwords.
  1. Length: Make sure the password is at least 12-14 characters long if possible.
  2. Avoid repetition: Do not use the same character or set of characters repeatedly in the password.
  3. Avoid dictionary words: Do not use words that can be found in a dictionary.
  4. Avoid sequences: Do not use letter or number sequences such as “abcdefg” or “123456”.
  5. Avoid personal information: Do not use usernames, pet names, relatives’ names, or something that the public or workmates know you strongly like or dislike.
  6. Include numbers and symbols: If allowed, include numbers and symbols in the password.
  7. Use both upper and lower case letters: Use a mix of upper and lower case letters in the password.
  8. Avoid reusing passwords: Do not use the same password for multiple sites or purposes.
  9. Consider using a random password generator: If possible, use a random password generator to create a strong and unique password.
  10. Example: A strong password example is “u1vX:,4Hd{]$”.

Encryption Software

Encryption Software convert the data or information into a secret code or cipher, which can only be accessed with a specific decryption key. This type of software is commonly used to protect sensitive data from unauthorized user or theft.

How to prevent our personal information 
  1. Don’t share your personal information related to your credit card or online banking, such as your credit card number, account information, etc., 
  2. Use antivirus and antispyware software 
  3. Antivirus and Antispyware programs also offer real-time protection monitoring your computer for any changes by malware software.
  4. Do not immediately respond to mails from unknown users
  5. Clear browser cookies frequently
  6. Keep the operating system and software applications up to date
  7. Never install software from unknown sources
  8. Remove unwanted or unknown software applications

Install firewalls

A firewall, which could be hardware or software, can help keep a network and computer secure. Firewalls examine network traffic to decide whether or not it should be permitted.

Clearing Data Stored In Browsers

Passwords entered into online forms can be stored using the built-in password management features of web browsers. When users try to enter into websites, browsers frequently ask if they want to save their usernames and passwords.

To clear personal data from a web browser such as Mozilla Firefox, launch the browser. 
  • Click Tools Menu, click Options.
  • Click Security Tab. The following window will be displayed:

Session 9 : Maintain Workplace Safety

Maintain Workplace Safety

A uniform set of safety guidelines and practises must be followed by every organisation. These guidelines must be expressed and prominently displayed in key locations. To follow safety regulations, all staff must get training and demonstrations.

Workplace safety basics to follow: fire safety, slip-and-fall prevention, electrical safety, and first aid.

Basic Fire safety rules in an organization are
  • Fire escape plans must be installed at proper levels
  • Conduct regular drills
  • Smoke alarms must be placed at proper intervals
  • Keep workplace a no-smoking zone
  • Maintenance of safety equipment must be taken care of regularly
Falls and Slips Safety rules
  • Keep the moving area clean and clutter free.
  • Workplace must be proper ventilated receive light.
  • Wear non slippery footwear.
  • Floors must be clean and dry
  • Oil spills, dust must be immediately cleaned.
Electrical Safety Rules
  • Electrical equipment used should be approved by a recognised organization.
  • Workers should be trained to handle the electric equipment safely
  • Damaged and hazardous electrical equipment should be immediately replaced. All old and workout and frayed switches and wires should be changed.
  • Heat emanating equipment should be kept away from the electrical equipment.
  • Take care that the outlets/ circuits should not be overloaded .
  • Switch off and unplug the electrical appliances before cleaning or relocating them.
Some rules of First Aid are
  • Assure the injured to remain calm and not to panic
  • Keep them warm if they are under shock
  • Do not move the victim in case of back/neck injury

Session 10 : Prevent Accidents and Emergencies 

Types of Accidents:

Accidents may be of following types :
  • Accidents at workplace : Slips and fall accidents, fire
  • Industrial disease/illness
  • Road traffic accidents
  • Clinical Accidents
  • Sports related accidents
Handling Accidents
  • Every organization must follow SOP for accident handling
  • Safety measures must be placed to prevent workplace accidents
  • Immediately call the medical team for any injury
  • Stay alert
  • Pay attention to and follow emergency drills

To stop more losses and to reduce the loss, an emergency needs to be treated right away. To spot any form of disaster, one must be vigilant. There are numerous crises that could happen at home. in job or in school.

Types of Emergency

There are many different kinds of emergencies, thus it is important to have an emergency management plan in place. The following are some examples of emergencies:

  • Chemical spills
  • Extreme heat waves
  • Droughts
  • Pandemics
  • Terrorist attack
  • Fire
  • Floods
  • Thunderstorms
  • Leakage of some hazardous gas/ chemical
Some of the types of emergencies that require evacuation are:

● Fire
● Explosion
● Floods
● Earthquake
● Hurricane
● Tornado
● Toxic material release
● Civil disturbance
● Workplace violence

Session 11 : Protect Health and Safety at Work

A company may face health risks that risk the lives of its employees. A hazard is something that could potentially cause harm, damage, or any type of loss of life or health.

Hazards can be of different types depending on the industry and the environment in which the employees work. The different types of hazards include:

  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Mechanical

Sources of Hazards

Checklist for Workstations : The workstation should:
  • provide sufficient space for the user to alter position comfortably
  • provide adequate lighting
  • have windows fitted with adjustable coverings to alter the sunlight level
  • be spacious enough when a workstation is shared by more than one person
The display screen should:
  • display well-defined characters of adequate size and spacing
  • have a stable image
  • have easily adjustable brightness and contrast
  • tilt and swivel easily to suit the user
  • be free from glare and reflection.
  • Use a separate base for the screen or an adjustable table
The keyboard should:
  • be able to tilt easily and should be able to separate from the screen to allow the user to adopt a comfortable working position
  • have space in front to provide support for the hands or arms of the user
  • have a matt surface
  • have clearly legible symbols on the keys
The work surface should:
  • provide adequate space for the user
  • have a low reflective surface
  • be of an adequate size to allow the screen, keyboard and other peripherals to be flexibly arranged
  • have a stable and adjustable document holder, which should be at the same level as the screen and at the same viewing distance

Workplace Evacuation

There should be a plan in place for evacuation in an emergency. In the event of an emergency or disaster, evacuation is the process of vacating a location.

Every business must take the following precautions to ensure a safe evacuation in an emergency:
  • Every organization must have an evacuation policy
  • Organization must have a designated assembly point for emergencies.
  • A ‘buddy system’ for individuals with special needs or disabilities must be designated.
  • Floor plans with evacuation routes in work areas.
  • Assembly areas, where you are required to assemble after evacuation, must be properly taken care of.
  • Periodic evacuation drills should be conducted. Ensure that you pay attention during these drills

Healthy Living

A healthy lifestyle helps to keep and improve people’s health and well being.

A healthy lifestyle includes :
  • healthy eating habits
  • physical activities
  • stress management
  • healthy mind
  • sound sleep
  • goal setting

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